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Presentation on theme: "DESIGNS TO PREVENT FIRE & EXPLOSION"— Presentation transcript:


2 Eliminate Ignition Sources
Typical Control Spacing and Layout Work Procedures Sewer Design, Diking, Weed Control, Housekeeping Procedures Fire or Flames Furnaces and Boilers Flares Welding Sparks from Tools Spread from Other Areas Matches and Lighters

3 Eliminate Ignition Sources
Hot Surfaces Hot Pipes and Equipment Automotive Equipment Typical Control Spacing Procedures Electrical Sparks from Switches Static Sparks ……………………… Lightning Handheld Electrical Equipment Typical Control Area Classification Grounding, Inerting, Relaxation Geometry, Snuffing Procedures

4 What else can be done? Inerting Controlling static electricity
Explosion-proof equipment & instruments Ventilation Sprinkler systems

5 Inerting Process of adding inert gas to combustible mixture to reduce concentration of oxygen below limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) Inert gas- nitrogen, carbon dioxide, steam(sometimes) Inerting begins with initial purge of vessel with inert gas to bring oxygen concentration down to safe concentrations Commonly used control point=4% below LOC~6% oxygen if LOC is10%

6 Methods of inerting Vacuum purging Pressure purging
Combined pressure-vacuum purging Vacuum & pressure purging with impure nitrogen Sweep-through purging Siphon purging

7 Vacuum purging Not used for large storage vessels because they are not designed for vacuums Reactor~designed for full vacuum(-760 mm Hg gauge OR 0.0 mm Hg absolute) Steps in vacuum purging: Drawing vacuum until desired vacuum is reached Relieving vacuum with inert gas~N2 or CO2 Repeat steps 1 & 2 above until desired oxidant concentration is reached

8 Concentration after j purge cycles, vacuum and relief is given by:
y0=initial oxidant concentration yj=final target oxidant concentration PH=initial pressure PL=vacuum pressure nH=number of moles at PH nL=number of moles at PL

9 Total moles of inert gas added for each cycle is constant
Total moles of inert gas added for each cycle is constant. For j cycles, the total inert gas is given by:

10 Example 7.1 Use a vacuum purging technique to reduce the oxygen concentration withing a 1000-gal vessel to 1 ppm. Determine the number of purges required and total nitrogen used. The temperature is 75 degrees F, and the vessel is originally charged with air under ambient conditions. A vacuum pump is used that reaches 20 mm Hg absolute, and the vacuum is subsequently relieved with pure nitrogen until the pressure returns to 1 atm absolute

11 Pressure purging Vessels can be pressure-purged by adding inert gas under pressure After the added gas is diffused throughout the vessel, it is vented to the atmosphere~usually down to atmospheric pressure

12 Vessel is initially at PL and is pressurized using a source of pure nitrogen at PH
nL=total moles at atmospheric pressure (low pressure) nH=total moles under pressure (high pressure) Initial concentration of oxidant (yo) is computed after the vessel is pressurized (1st pressurized state)

13 Example 7.2 Use a pressure purging technique to reduce the oxygen concentration in the same vessel discussed in Example 7.1. Determine the number of purges required to reduce the oxygen concentration to 1 ppm using pure nitrogen at a pressure of 80 psig and at a temperature of 75 degrees F. Also, determine the total nitrogen required

14 Combined pressure purging
Purging cycles for a pressure-first purge (Fig 7.3) Purging cycles for evacuate-first purge (Fig 7.4)

15 Vacuum and pressure purging with impure nitrogen
Previous equation only applies for pure nitrogen Nitrogen 98%+ range Remaining impurities=oxygen

16 Advantages & disadvantages
Pressure purging is faster because pressure differentials are greater. However uses more gas than vacuum purging Vacuum purging uses less inert gas because oxygen concentration is reduced primarily by vacuum Combined pressure-vacuum purging~less nitrogen is used compared to pressure purging, especially if the initial cycle is a vacuum cycle

17 Sweep through purging Adds purge gas into a vessel at one opening and withdraws the mixed gas from the vessel to the atmosphere from another opening Commonly used when vessel not rated for pressure or vacuum Purge gas is added and withdrawn at atmospheric pressure V=vessel volume C0=inlet oxidant concentration Qv=volumetric flow rate t=time Reduce oxidant concentration from C1 to C2

18 Example 7.3 A storage vessel contains 100% air by volume and must be inerted with nitrogen until the oxygen concentration is below 1.25% by volume. The vessel volume is 1000ft3. how much nitrogen must be added: assuming nitrogen contains 0.01% oxygen If it is pure nitrogen

19 Siphon purging Sweep-through process requires large quantities of nitrogen~expensive Siphon purging is used to minimize this type of purging expense Starts by filling vessel with liquid-water or any liquid compatible with product Purge gas is added to the vapor space of the vessel as the liquid is drained from vessel

20 Static Electricity Sparks resulting from static charge buildup (involving at least one poor conductor) and sudden discharge Household Example: walking across a rug and grabbing a door knob Industrial Example: Pumping nonconductive liquid through a pipe then subsequent grounding of the container Dangerous energy near flammable vapors 0.1 mJ Static buildup by walking across carpet 20 mJ

21 Double-Layer Charging
Streaming Current The flow of electricity produced by transferring electrons from one surface to another by a flowing fluid or solid The larger the pipe / the faster the flow, the larger the current Relaxation Time The time for a charge to dissipate by leakage The lower the conductivity / the higher the dielectric constant, the longer the time

22 Controlling Static Electricity
Reduce rate of charge generation Reduce flow rates Increase the rate of charge relaxation Relaxation tanks after filters, enlarged section of pipe before entering tanks Use bonding and grounding to prevent discharge

23 Controlling Static Electricity

24 Explosion Proof Equipment
All electrical devices are inherent ignition sources If flammable materials might be present at times in an area, it is designated XP (Explosion Proof Required) Explosion-proof housing (or intrinsically-safe equipment) is required

25 Area Classification National Electrical Code (NEC) defines area classifications as a function of the nature and degree of process hazards present Class I Flammable gases/vapors present Class II Combustible dusts present Class III Combustible dusts present but not likely in suspension Group A Acetylene Group B Hydrogen, ethylene Group C CO, H2S Group D Butane, ethane Division 1 Flammable concentrations normally present Division 2 Flammable materials are normally in closed systems

26 VENTILATION Open-Air Plants Plants Inside Buildings
Average wind velocities are often high enough to safely dilute volatile chemical leaks Plants Inside Buildings Local ventilation Purge boxes ‘Elephant trunks’ Dilution ventilation (³ 1 ft3/min/ft2 of floor area) When many small points of possible leaks exist

27 Sprinkler system types
Antifreeze sprinkler system A wet pipe system that contains an antifreeze solution and that is connected to water supply Deluge sprinkler system Open sprinklers and an empty line that is connected to water supply line through a valve that is opened upon detection of heat or flammable material Dry pipe sprinkler system A system filled with nitrogen or air under pressure. When the sprinkler is opened by heat, the system is depressurized, allowing water to flow into the system and out the open sprinkler Wet pipe sprinkler system A system containing water that discharges through the opened sprinklers via heat

28 Summary Though they can often be reduced in magnitude or even sometimes designed out, many of the hazards that can lead to fires/explosions are unavoidable Eliminating at least one side of the Fire Triangle represents the best chance for avoiding fires and explosions


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