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Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall -

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Presentation on theme: "Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall -"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 27, the reader will be able to: 1.Prepare for ASE Engine Performance (A8) certification test content area “D” (Emission Control Systems). 2.Describe the purpose and function of the exhaust gas recirculation system. 3.Discuss how the exhaust gas recirculation system is tested under OBD-II regulations. 4.Explain methods for diagnosing and testing for faults in the exhaust gas recirculation system.

3 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ NO X FORMATION Nitrogen (N 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) molecules are separated into individual atoms of nitrogen and oxygen during the combustion process. These then bond to form NO X (NO, NO 2 ). When combustion flame front temperatures exceed 2,500°F (1,370°C), NO X formation increases dramatically.

4 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CONTROLLING NO X The amounts of NO X formed at temperatures below 2,500°F (1,370°C) can be controlled in the exhaust by a catalyst. To handle the amounts generated above 2,500°F (1,370°C), the following are some methods that have been used to lower NO X formation: –Enrich the air-fuel mixture. –Lower the compression ratio. –Dilute the air-fuel mixture.

5 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CONTROLLING NO X FIGURE 27-1 Typical vacuum-operated EGR valve. The operation of the valve is controlled by the computer by pulsing the EGR control solenoid on and off.

6 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR SYSTEM OPERATION Since small amounts of exhaust are all that is needed to lower peak combustion temperatures, the orifice that the exhaust passes through is small. FIGURE 27-2 When the EGR valve opens, exhaust flows through the valve and into passages in the intake manifold.

7 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR SYSTEM OPERATION Because combustion temperatures are low, EGR is usually not required during the following conditions. –Idle speed –When the engine is cold

8 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BACK PRESSURE EGR VALVES Many EGR valves are designed with a small valve inside that bleeds off any applied vacuum and prevents the valve from opening. –Some EGR valves require a positive back pressure in the exhaust system. –This is called a positive back pressure EGR valve. On each exhaust stroke, the engine emits an exhaust “pulse.” Each pulse represents a positive pressure. Behind each pulse is a small area of low pressure. –Some EGR valves react to this low pressure area by closing a small internal valve, which allows the EGR valve to be opened by vacuum. –This type of EGR valve is called a negative back pressure EGR valve

9 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BACK PRESSURE EGR VALVES FIGURE 27-3 Back pressure in the exhaust system is used to close the control valve, thereby allowing engine vacuum to open the EGR valve.

10 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ COMPUTER-CONTROLLED EGR Many computer-controlled EGR systems have one or more solenoids controlling the EGR vacuum. The computer controls a solenoid to shut off vacuum to the EGR valve at cold engine temperatures, idle speed, and wide-open throttle operation.

11 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR VALVE POSITION SENSORS Late model computer-controlled EGR systems use a sensor to indicate EGR operation. On-Board Diagnostics Generation-II (OBD-II) EGR system monitors require an EGR to determine EGR gas flow. A linear potentiometer on the top of the EGR valve stem indicates valve position for the computer. This is called an EGR valve position (EVP) sensor.

12 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR VALVE POSITION SENSORS FIGURE 27-4 An EGR valve position sensor on top of an EGR valve.

13 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR VALVE POSITION SENSORS FIGURE 27-5 An integrated EGR valve system showing the pintle- position sensor and vacuum diaphragm.

14 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR VALVE POSITION SENSORS Digital EGR Valves Unlike the previously mentioned vacuum- operated EGR valves, the digital EGR valve consists of three solenoids controlled by the PCM. FIGURE 27-6 This 3800 V-6 uses three solenoids for EGR.A scan tool can be used to turn on each solenoid to check if the valve is working and if the exhaust passages are capable of flowing enough exhaust to the intake manifold to affect engine operation when cycled.

15 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR VALVE POSITION SENSORS Linear EGR Most General Motors and several others vehicles use a linear EGR that contains a pulse-width modulated solenoid to precisely regulate exhaust gas flow and a feedback potentiometer that signals to the computer the actual position of the valve. FIGURE 27-7 A General Motors linear EGR valve.

16 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR VALVE POSITION SENSORS Linear EGR FIGURE 27-8 The EGR valve pintle is pulse-width modulated and a three-wire potentiometer provides pintle-position information back to the PCM.

17 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ OBD-II EGR MONITORING STRATEGIES In 1996, the U.S. EPA began requiring OBD-II systems in all passenger cars and most light-duty trucks. These systems include emissions system monitors that alert the driver and the technician if an emissions system is malfunctioning. To be certain the EGR system is operating, the PCM runs a functional test of the system, when specific operating conditions exist. The OBD-II system tests by opening and closing the EGR valve. The PCM monitors an EGR function sensor for a change in signal voltage. If the EGR system fails, a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) is set. If the system fails two consecutive times, the malfunction indicator light (MIL) is lit.

18 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ OBD-II EGR MONITORING STRATEGIES FIGURE 27-9 A DPFE sensor and related components.

19 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ OBD-II EGR MONITORING STRATEGIES FIGURE An OBD-II active test. The PCM opens the EGR valve and then monitors the MAP sensor and/or engine speed (RPM) to meet acceptable values.

20 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ DIAGNOSING A DEFECTIVE EGR SYSTEM If the EGR valve is not opening or the flow of the exhaust gas is restricted, then the following symptoms are likely: –Ping (spark knock or detonation) during acceleration or during cruise (steady-speed driving) –Excessive oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) exhaust emissions If the EGR valve is stuck open or partially open, then the following symptoms are likely: –Rough idle or frequent stalling –Poor performance/low power, especially at low engine speed –To check for proper EGR flow, the engine vacuum should drop 6 to 8 in. Hg when the EGR is commanded on by a scan tool when the engine is at idle speed.

21 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ THE SNAKE TRICK FIGURE Removing the EGR passage plugs from the intake manifold on a Honda.

22 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ EGR-RELATED OBD-II DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES

23 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ SUMMARY 1.Oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) are formed inside the combustion chamber due to heat exceeding 2,500°F. 2.Recirculating 6% to 10% inert exhaust gases back into the intake system reduces peak temperature inside the combustion chamber and reduces NO X exhaust emissions. 3.EGR is usually not needed at idle, and not wanted at wide-open throttle, for maximum engine performance, or when the engine is cold.

24 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ SUMMARY 4.Vacuum-operated EGR valves are usually exhaust back pressure controlled to help match EGR flow into the intake with the load on the engine. 5.Many EGR systems use a feedback potentiometer to signal the PCM about the position of the EGR valve pintle. 6.Some EGR valves are solenoids or pulse-width modulated pintles. 7.OBD II requires that the flow rate be tested and this can be achieved by opening the EGR valve and observing the reaction of the MAP sensor.

25 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.What causes the formation of oxides of nitrogen? 2.How does the use of exhaust gas reduce NO X exhaust emission? 3.How does the DPFE sensor work? 4.How does the PCM determine that the exhaust flow through the EGR system meets OBD-II regulations?

26 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 1.What causes the nitrogen and the oxygen in the air to combine and form NO X ? a)Sunlight b)Any spark will cause this to occur c)Heat above 2,500°F (1,370°C) d)Chemical reaction in the catalytic converter

27 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 1.What causes the nitrogen and the oxygen in the air to combine and form NO X ? a)Sunlight b)Any spark will cause this to occur c)Heat above 2,500°F (1,370°C) d)Chemical reaction in the catalytic converter

28 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 2.Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is generally not needed under all the following conditions except ______. a)Idle speed b)Cold engine c)Cruise speed d)Wide-open throttle (WOT)

29 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 2.Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is generally not needed under all the following conditions except ______. a)Idle speed b)Cold engine c)Cruise speed d)Wide-open throttle (WOT)

30 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 3.Technician A says that a low-restriction exhaust system could prevent a back pressure-type vacuum-controlled EGR valve from opening correctly. Technician B says restricted exhaust can cause the EGR valve position sensor to fail. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

31 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 3.Technician A says that a low-restriction exhaust system could prevent a back pressure-type vacuum-controlled EGR valve from opening correctly. Technician B says restricted exhaust can cause the EGR valve position sensor to fail. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

32 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 4.EGR is used to control which exhaust emission? a)Unburned hydrocarbons (HC) b)Oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) c)Carbon monoxide (CO) d)Both NO X and CO

33 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 4.EGR is used to control which exhaust emission? a)Unburned hydrocarbons (HC) b)Oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) c)Carbon monoxide (CO) d)Both NO X and CO

34 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 5.A typical EGR pintle-position sensor is what type of sensor? a)Rheostat b)Piezoelectric c)Wheatstone bridge d)Potentiometer

35 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 5.A typical EGR pintle-position sensor is what type of sensor? a)Rheostat b)Piezoelectric c)Wheatstone bridge d)Potentiometer

36 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 6.OBD-II regulations require that the EGR system be tested. Technician A says that the PCM can monitor the commanded position of the EGR valve to determine if it is functioning correctly. Technician B says that the PCM can open the EGR valve an monitors for a change in the MAP sensor or oxygen sensor reading to detect if the system is functioning correctly. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

37 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 6.OBD-II regulations require that the EGR system be tested. Technician A says that the PCM can monitor the commanded position of the EGR valve to determine if it is functioning correctly. Technician B says that the PCM can open the EGR valve an monitors for a change in the MAP sensor or oxygen sensor reading to detect if the system is functioning correctly. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

38 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 7.Two technicians are discussing clogged EGR passages. Technician A says clogged EGR passages can cause excessive NO X exhaust emission. Technician B says that clogged EGR passages can cause the engine to ping (spark knock or detonation). Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

39 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 7.Two technicians are discussing clogged EGR passages. Technician A says clogged EGR passages can cause excessive NO X exhaust emission. Technician B says that clogged EGR passages can cause the engine to ping (spark knock or detonation). Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

40 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 8.An EGR valve that is partially stuck open would most likely cause what condition? a)Rough idle/stalling b)Excessive NO X exhaust emissions c)Ping (spark knock or detonation) d)Missing at highway speed

41 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 8.An EGR valve that is partially stuck open would most likely cause what condition? a)Rough idle/stalling b)Excessive NO X exhaust emissions c)Ping (spark knock or detonation) d)Missing at highway speed

42 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 9.When testing an EGR system for proper operation using a vacuum gauge, how much should the vacuum drop when the EGR is commanded on by a scan tool? a)1 to 2 in. Hg b)3 to 5 in. Hg c)6 to 8 in. Hg d)8 to 10 in. Hg

43 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 9.When testing an EGR system for proper operation using a vacuum gauge, how much should the vacuum drop when the EGR is commanded on by a scan tool? a)1 to 2 in. Hg b)3 to 5 in. Hg c)6 to 8 in. Hg d)8 to 10 in. Hg

44 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 10.A P0401 DTC (exhaust gas recirculation flow insufficient) is being discussed. Technician A says that a defective EGR valve could be the cause. Technician B says that clogged EGR passages could be the cause. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

45 Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control Systems, 2/e By James D. Halderman and Jim Linder © 2009 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 10.A P0401 DTC (exhaust gas recirculation flow insufficient) is being discussed. Technician A says that a defective EGR valve could be the cause. Technician B says that clogged EGR passages could be the cause. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B


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