Halocarbons are organic compounds containing covalently bonded halogens. C C C H H H H H H H Cl 1- chloropropane C Cl carbon tetrachloride tetrachloromethane Halocarbons are usually man-made.
Types of Halocarbons Alkyl Halide: the halogen is attached to an aliphatic carbon chain - (alkane, -ene, -yne) Aryl Halide: the halogen is attached to a carbon that is part of an aromatic ring - (benzene) I CH 2 - CH - CH - CH 3 CH 3 - - F
The HaloCarbons (Cl, Br, I, Fl) Name the halogen as a branch, replacing - ine in the name of the halogen with - o. Multiple halogens are listed alphabetically. All other rules the same (di, tri, lowest number…) 2-bromo-2-methylpropane CH 3 C Br C C Cl H H H chloroetheneiodomethane I CH 3 -
Halogenation Reactions H atom replaced on a chain with a halogen group: R-H + X 2 R-X + HX UV light H-C - C-H + Cl 2 H-C - C-Cl + HCl H HH H HH HH ethenechloroethane Alkane + Halogen HalocarbonHalogen halide +
halocarbon hydroxide ion alcoholhalide ion R-X OH R-OH X + + H2OH2O Halogen is replaced by hydroxide ions (OH - ) to produce an alcohol and a salt. CH 3 I + KOH CH 3 OH + KI Iodomethane methanol 100◦C H2OH2O