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Non-Protein Nitrogen(NPN) Compounds

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Presentation on theme: "Non-Protein Nitrogen(NPN) Compounds"— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-Protein Nitrogen(NPN) Compounds

2 Non-protein Nitrogen Compounds
The determination of nonprotein nitrogenous substances in the blood has traditionally been used to monitor renal function. Nitrogen containing compounds that are not proteins or polypeptides Useful clinical information is obtained from individual components of NPN fraction

3 Clinically Significant NPN
The NPN fraction comprises about 15 compounds Majority of these compounds arise from catabolism of proteins and nucleic acids

4 Urea Nitrogen (Blood) BUN
Highest concentration of NPN in blood Major excretory product of protein metabolism These processes release nitrogen, which is converted to ammonia Synthesized in the liver from CO2 and Ammonia that arises from deamination of amino acids Organisms synthesize urea from ammonia because ammonia (a common metabolic waste product) raises pH in cells to toxic levels. Therefore, urea synthesis is necessary even though it costs energy to produce. Urea is neither acidic nor basic, so it is a perfect vehicle for getting rid of nitrogen waste

5 Urea Nitrogen (Blood) BUN
Assays for urea were based on measurement of nitrogen, the term blood urea nitrogen (BUN) has been used to refer to urea determination. Excreted by the kidneys – 40% reabsorbed <10% of the total are excreted through the gastrointestinal tract and skin. Concentration is determined by: Renal function Dietary intake Protein catabolism rate

6 Clinical Application Measurement of urea is used to:
evaluate renal function, to assess hydration status, to determine nitrogen balance, to aid in the diagnosis of renal disease, and to verify adequacy of dialysis.

7 Disease Correlations Azotemia: elevated conc. of urea in blood
Very high plasma urea concentration accompanied by renal failure is called uremia, or the uremic syndrome Causes of urea plasma elevations are: Prerenal Renal and postrenal

8 Pre-Renal Azotemia Reduced renal blood flow Less blood is delivered to the kidney less urea filtered Anything that produces a decrease in functional blood volume, include: Congestive heart failure, shock, hemorrhage, dehydration High protein diet or increased catabolism (Fever, major illness, stress)

9 Renal Azotemia Decreased renal function causes increased blood urea due to poor excretion Acute & Chronic renal failure Glomerular nephritis Tubular necrosis & other Intrinsic renal disease Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis, abbreviated GN, is a renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys

10 Post-Renal Azotemia Obstruction of urine flow
Renal calculi Tumors of bladder or prostate Severe infections

11 Decreased Urea Nitrogen
Low protein dietary intake Liver disease (lack of synthesis) Severe vomiting and/or diarrhea (loss) Increase protein synthesis

12 Analytical methods Assays for urea were based on measuring the amount of nitrogen in the sample (BUN) Current analytic methods have retained this custom and urea often is reported in terms of nitrogen concentration rather than urea concentration (urea nitrogen). Urea nitrogen concentration can be converted to urea concentration by multiplying by 2.14

13 Conversion of BUN to urea
Atomic mass of nitrogen = 14 g/mol; Molecular mass of urea = g/mol. Urea contains two nitrogen atoms per molecule. Urea nitrogen (urea N) is 46.6% by weight of urea (28 divided by 60.06). Therefore: 10 mg/dL of BUN divided by = mg/dL of urea

14 Analytical methods Enzymatic
Urease → hydrolysis of urea to ammonium ion , then detect ammonium ion (NH4+) Enzymatic The most common method couples the urease reaction with glutamate dehydrogenase glutamate dehydrogenase = GLDH

15 NH4+ + pH indicator → color change
Analytical methods Indicator dye NH4+ + pH indicator → color change Conductimetric Conversion of unionized urea to NH4+ and CO32- results in increased conductivity Reference range of Urea N: Serum or plasma: mg/dl 24 hours Urine: g/day :

16 Creatinine/ Creatine Creatine is synthesized in Liver from arginine, glycine & methionine Converted to Creatine Phosphate = high energy source for muscle tissue Creatinine is produced as a waste product of creatine and creatine phosphate. Creatine Phosphate – phosphoric acid = Creatinine Creatine – water = Creatinine

17 Creatinine production

18 Creatinine/Creatine Creatinine is released into circulation at stable rate proportional to muscle mass Filtered by glomerulus Excreted in urine Plasma creatinine concentration is a function of: relative muscle mass, rate of creatine turnover and renal function Daily creatinine excretion is fairly stable. It’s a very good test to evaluate renal function

19 Disease Correlations Elevated Creatinine is found with abnormal renal function (i.e. GFR) Measurement of creatinine concentration is used to determine: sufficiency of kidney function and the severity of kidney damage and to monitor the progression of kidney disease.

20 Disease Correlations GFR is the volume of plasma filtered (V) by the glomerulus per unit of time GFR is used to estimate renal function Creatinine Clearance A measure of the amount of creatinine eliminated from the blood by the kidneys per unit time Plasma concentration of creatinine is inversely proportional to clearance Therefore increased plasma levels mean decreased GFR

21 Analytic Methods Jaffe reaction Kinetic Jaffe Reaction
Most frequently used, was first described in 1886 Creatinine reacts with picric acid in alkaline solution → red-orange chromogen Kinetic Jaffe Reaction Rate of change in absorbance is measured Enzymatic Method Using creatininase, creatine kinase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase

22 Analytic Methods creatininase Phosphoenolpyruvate= PEP

23 Creatine Elevated in plasma and urine in
Muscular dystrophy, hyperthyroidism, trauma, Plasma creatinine levels usually normal, but urinary is elevated Specialized testing – not part of routine lab

24 Assay of creatine Analyzing the sample for creatinine before and after heating in acid solution using an endpoint Jaffe method. Heating converts creatine to creatinine and the difference between the two samples is the creatine concentration.

25 Uric Acid Uric acid is a final breakdown product of purine metabolism (adenosine/guanine) in liver Most other mammals degrade it further to allantoin Uric acid is transported to kidney and filtered (70%) 98% reabsorbed in PCT Some secreted by DCT Net amount 6-12% of filtered amount Remaining 30% by GIT PCT= proximal convoluted tubule DCT= distal

26 Uric Acid Present in plasma as monosodium urate
At plasma pH → relatively insoluble Conc. > 6.8 mg/dl → plasma saturated → urate crystals may form & precipitate in tissue Uric acid is measured to: assess inherited disorders of purine metabolism, to confirm diagnosis and monitor treatment of gout, to assist in the diagnosis of renal calculi, to prevent uric acid nephropathy during chemotherapeutic treatment, and to detect kidney dysfunction

27 Disease Correlations Gout Primarily in men Onset 30-50 years
UA greater than 6.0 mg/dL Pain & inflammation of joints by precipitation of sodium urates in tissues Increased risk of renal calculi hyperuricemia due to overproduction of uric acid in 25-30%

28 Disease Correlations Increased catabolism Chronic renal disease
occurs in patients on chemotherapy for diseases such as leukemia & multiple myeloma. Allopurinol inhibits xanthine oxidase, an enzyme in the uric acid synthesis pathway, is used to treat these patients. Chronic renal disease causes elevated levels of uric acid because filtration and secretion are hindered.


30 Disease Correlations Hypouricemia Secondary to severe liver disease
Defective renal tubular reabsorption Fanconi’s Syndrome Chemotherapy with 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine – inhibit purine synthesis Over treatment with allopurinol Fanconi Syndrome (also known as Fanconi's syndrome) is a disorder in which the proximal tubular function of the kidney is impaired,[1] resulting in decreased reabsorption of electrolytes and nutrients back into the bloodstream

31 Analytic Methods Primary method uses enzyme uricase (urate oxidase) to convert uric acid to allantoin Differential absorption at 293 nm uric acid has a uv absorpance peak at 293 nm. Whereas allantoin does not Proteins also absorb near this wavelength uric acid has a uv absorpance peak at 293 nm. Whereas allantoin does not

32 Reference range: Males 0.5-7.2, Females: 2.6-6.0 mg/dl
Analytic Methods Newer methods couple uricase with catalase or peroxidase action on hydrogen peroxide product from allantoin production Some interferences from reducing agents Reference range: Males , Females: mg/dl

33 Ammonia Comes from deamination of amino acids
Digestive & bacterial enzymes in intestine Also released from muscle during exercise Consumed by parenchymal cells of liver and converted to urea Free ammonia is toxic; however, ammonia is present in the plasma in low concentrations

34 Disease Correlations Severe liver disease
Most common cause of abnormal ammonia levels Ammonia is not removed from circulation & not converted to urea Elevated ammonia levels are neurotoxic and are often associated with encephalopathy.

35 Disease Correlations Reye’s Syndrome Most commonly seen in children
Often preceded by viral infection treated with aspirin Severe fatty infiltration of liver May be fatal if ammonia levels remain high 100% survival if ammonia stays below 5x normal Reye's syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. It is associated with aspirin consumption by children with viral diseases such as chickenpox. The disease causes fatty liver with minimal inflammation, and severe encephalopathy (with swelling of the brain). The liver may become slightly enlarged and firm, and there is a change in the appearance of the kidneys. Jaundice is not usually present

36 Disease Correlations Ammonia is of use in the diagnosis of inherited deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes Measurement of ammonia used to diagnose and monitor treatment

37 Analytic Methods Low concentration, volatile nature, instability, easy contamination – testing difficult Historical Methods Conway 1935 – volatilize, absorbed then titrated Dowex 50 cation-exchange column + Berthelot reaction

38 Analytic Methods Glutamate dehydrogenase Direct ISE
Decrease in absorbance at 340 as NADPH is consumed (oxidized) Direct ISE Change in pH of solution as ammonia diffuses through semi-permeable membrane Reference Interval: Adult Plasma 19 – 60 μg / dl

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