Presentation on theme: "Non-Protein Nitrogen(NPN) Compounds. Non-protein Nitrogen Compounds The determination of nonprotein nitrogenous substances in the blood has traditionally."— Presentation transcript:
Non-Protein Nitrogen(NPN) Compounds
Non-protein Nitrogen Compounds The determination of nonprotein nitrogenous substances in the blood has traditionally been used to monitor renal function. Nitrogen containing compounds that are not proteins or polypeptides Useful clinical information is obtained from individual components of NPN fraction
Clinically Significant NPN The NPN fraction comprises about 15 compounds Majority of these compounds arise from catabolism of proteins and nucleic acids
Urea Nitrogen (Blood) BUN These processes release nitrogen, which is converted to ammonia Synthesized in the liver from CO 2 and Ammonia that arises from deamination of amino acids Highest concentration of NPN in blood Major excretory product of protein metabolism
Urea Nitrogen (Blood) BUN Assays for urea were based on measurement of nitrogen, the term blood urea nitrogen (BUN) has been used to refer to urea determination. Excreted by the kidneys – 40% reabsorbed <10% of the total are excreted through the gastrointestinal tract and skin. Concentration is determined by: ◦ Renal function ◦ Dietary intake ◦ Protein catabolism rate
Clinical Application Measurement of urea is used to: ◦ evaluate renal function, ◦ to assess hydration status, ◦ to determine nitrogen balance, ◦ to aid in the diagnosis of renal disease, ◦ and to verify adequacy of dialysis.
Disease Correlations Azotemia: elevated conc. of urea in blood Very high plasma urea concentration accompanied by renal failure is called uremia, or the uremic syndrome Causes of urea plasma elevations are: ◦ Prerenal ◦ Renal ◦ and postrenal
Pre-Renal Azotemia Reduced renal blood flow Less blood is delivered to the kidney less urea filtered ◦ Anything that produces a decrease in functional blood volume, include: Congestive heart failure, shock, hemorrhage, dehydration High protein diet or increased catabolism (Fever, major illness, stress)
Renal Azotemia Decreased renal function causes increased blood urea due to poor excretion ◦ Acute & Chronic renal failure ◦ Glomerular nephritis ◦ Tubular necrosis ◦ & other Intrinsic renal disease
Post-Renal Azotemia Obstruction of urine flow ◦ Renal calculi Tumors of bladder or prostate Severe infections
Decreased Urea Nitrogen Low protein dietary intake Liver disease (lack of synthesis) Severe vomiting and/or diarrhea (loss) Increase protein synthesis
Analytical methods Assays for urea were based on measuring the amount of nitrogen in the sample (BUN) Current analytic methods have retained this custom and urea often is reported in terms of nitrogen concentration rather than urea concentration (urea nitrogen). Urea nitrogen concentration can be converted to urea concentration by multiplying by 2.14
Atomic mass of nitrogen = 14 g/mol; Molecular mass of urea = 60.06 g/mol. Urea contains two nitrogen atoms per molecule. Urea nitrogen (urea N) is 46.6% by weight of urea (28 divided by 60.06). Therefore: 10 mg/dL of BUN divided by 0.466 = 21.46 mg/dL of urea Conversion of BUN to urea
Analytical methods Urease → hydrolysis of urea to ammonium ion, then detect ammonium ion (NH4 + ) Enzymatic ◦ The most common method couples the urease reaction with glutamate dehydrogenase
Analytical methods Indicator dye NH 4 + + pH indicator → color change Conductimetric ◦ Conversion of unionized urea to NH 4 + and CO 3 2- results in increased conductivity Reference range of Urea N: Serum or plasma: 6-20 mg/dl 24 hours Urine: 12-20 g/day
Creatinine/ Creatine Creatine is synthesized in Liver from arginine, glycine & methionine Converted to Creatine Phosphate = high energy source for muscle tissue Creatinine is produced as a waste product of creatine and creatine phosphate. Creatine Phosphate – phosphoric acid = Creatinine Creatine – water = Creatinine
Creatinine/Creatine Creatinine is released into circulation at stable rate proportional to muscle mass Filtered by glomerulus Excreted in urine Plasma creatinine concentration is a function of: ◦ relative muscle mass, ◦ rate of creatine turnover ◦ and renal function Daily creatinine excretion is fairly stable. It’s a very good test to evaluate renal function
Disease Correlations Elevated Creatinine is found with abnormal renal function (i.e. GFR) Measurement of creatinine concentration is used to determine: ◦ sufficiency of kidney function ◦ and the severity of kidney damage ◦ and to monitor the progression of kidney disease.
Disease Correlations GFR is the volume of plasma filtered (V) by the glomerulus per unit of time ◦ GFR is used to estimate renal function Creatinine Clearance ◦ A measure of the amount of creatinine eliminated from the blood by the kidneys per unit time Plasma concentration of creatinine is inversely proportional to clearance Therefore increased plasma levels mean decreased GFR
Analytic Methods Jaffe reaction ◦ Most frequently used, was first described in 1886 Creatinine reacts with picric acid in alkaline solution → red-orange chromogen Kinetic Jaffe Reaction ◦ Rate of change in absorbance is measured Enzymatic Method ◦ Using creatininase, creatine kinase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase
Analytic Methods creatininase
Creatine Elevated in plasma and urine in ◦ Muscular dystrophy, hyperthyroidism, trauma, Plasma creatinine levels usually normal, but urinary is elevated Specialized testing – not part of routine lab
Assay of creatine Analyzing the sample for creatinine before and after heating in acid solution using an endpoint Jaffe method. Heating converts creatine to creatinine and the difference between the two samples is the creatine concentration.
Uric Acid Uric acid is a final breakdown product of purine metabolism (adenosine/guanine) in liver Most other mammals degrade it further to allantoin Uric acid is transported to kidney and filtered (70%) 98% reabsorbed in PCT Some secreted by DCT Net amount 6-12% of filtered amount Remaining 30% by GIT
Uric Acid Present in plasma as monosodium urate At plasma pH → relatively insoluble Conc. > 6.8 mg/dl → plasma saturated → urate crystals may form & precipitate in tissue Uric acid is measured to: ◦ assess inherited disorders of purine metabolism, ◦ to confirm diagnosis and monitor treatment of gout, ◦ to assist in the diagnosis of renal calculi, ◦ to prevent uric acid nephropathy during chemotherapeutic treatment, ◦ and to detect kidney dysfunction
Disease Correlations Gout ◦ Primarily in men ◦ Onset 30-50 years ◦ UA greater than 6.0 mg/dL ◦ Pain & inflammation of joints by precipitation of sodium urates in tissues ◦ Increased risk of renal calculi ◦ hyperuricemia due to overproduction of uric acid in 25-30%
Disease Correlations Increased catabolism ◦ occurs in patients on chemotherapy for diseases such as leukemia & multiple myeloma. ◦ Allopurinol inhibits xanthine oxidase, an enzyme in the uric acid synthesis pathway, is used to treat these patients. Chronic renal disease ◦ causes elevated levels of uric acid because filtration and secretion are hindered.
Disease Correlations Hypouricemia ◦ Secondary to severe liver disease ◦ Defective renal tubular reabsorption Fanconi’s Syndrome ◦ Chemotherapy with 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine – inhibit purine synthesis ◦ Over treatment with allopurinol
Analytic Methods Primary method uses enzyme uricase (urate oxidase) to convert uric acid to allantoin Differential absorption at 293 nm ◦ uric acid has a uv absorpance peak at 293 nm. Whereas allantoin does not ◦ Proteins also absorb near this wavelength
Analytic Methods Newer methods couple uricase with catalase or peroxidase action on hydrogen peroxide product from allantoin production Some interferences from reducing agents Reference range: Males 0.5-7.2, Females: 2.6-6.0 mg/dl
Ammonia Comes from deamination of amino acids Digestive & bacterial enzymes in intestine Also released from muscle during exercise Consumed by parenchymal cells of liver and converted to urea Free ammonia is toxic; ◦ however, ammonia is present in the plasma in low concentrations
Disease Correlations Severe liver disease ◦ Most common cause of abnormal ammonia levels ◦ Ammonia is not removed from circulation & not converted to urea Elevated ammonia levels are neurotoxic and are often associated with encephalopathy.
Disease Correlations Reye’s Syndrome ◦ Most commonly seen in children ◦ Often preceded by viral infection treated with aspirin ◦ Severe fatty infiltration of liver ◦ May be fatal if ammonia levels remain high ◦ 100% survival if ammonia stays below 5x normal
Disease Correlations Ammonia is of use in the diagnosis of inherited deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes Measurement of ammonia used to diagnose and monitor treatment
Analytic Methods Glutamate dehydrogenase ◦ Decrease in absorbance at 340 as NADPH is consumed (oxidized) Direct ISE ◦ Change in pH of solution as ammonia diffuses through semi-permeable membrane Reference Interval: Adult Plasma 19 – 60 μ g / dl