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Carbons. Write condensed structural formulas for and name alkyl halides. Describe some common organic reactions. Including: esterification, halogenation,

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Presentation on theme: "Carbons. Write condensed structural formulas for and name alkyl halides. Describe some common organic reactions. Including: esterification, halogenation,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbons

2

3 Write condensed structural formulas for and name alkyl halides. Describe some common organic reactions. Including: esterification, halogenation, hydration, hydrogenation Additional KEY Terms

4 The functional group of halocarbons is the halo group general formula: R–X X – represents any halogen attached to a hydrocarbon O x R halo group usually man-made

5 Properties of Halocarbons: Polar covalent: < 5C (small) are soluble in water Can be alkyl halides OR aryl halides Strong IMF (d-d) gives higher bp/mp aliphatic chainaromatic ring I CH 2 - CH - CH - CH 3 CH F

6 C C C H H H H H H H Cl 1- chloropropane C Cl tetrachloromethane

7 Naming HaloCarbons name the halogen as a branch replace - ine ending with - o multiple halogens are listed alphabetically. All other rules the same (di, tri, lowest number…) 2-bromo-2-methylpropane CH 3 C Br C C Cl H H H chloroethene I CH 3 - iodomethane

8 1.bromobenzene 2. 3-chloro-1-butene 3.1,2 - difluoropropane 4.1-bromo-3,5-diiodobenzene 5.1,2,3 - triiodocyclopentane

9 CH 3 CH 3 C H Cl -- l l l CH 3 l Br l CH 3 I-CH 2 -C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 Br l

10 Organic Reactions + = ?

11 Halogenation Reactions 1. Replace with a halogen group R-H + X 2 R-X + HX UV light Alkane + Halogen HalocarbonHalogen halide + 2. Replace of a halogen group (dehalogenation reaction) R-X + OH - R-OH + X - Alkyl Halide + Base AlcoholHalide ion +

12 H Br alkyl halide + H H H H C C H H H H C C alkene addition reaction elimination reaction Br H 3. Break a multiple bond with a halogen group

13 alkyl dihalide addition reaction + elimination reaction H H H H C C H H H H C C alkene Cl

14 Esterification reaction desterification reaction H O H O-C C-C O + ester alcohol carboxyl acid H C-C O O H O-C +

15 hydrogenation reaction + H H H H H C C H HH dehydrogenation reaction H H H H C C alkene alkane (alkyne) (alkene)

16 hydration reaction + H O H dehydration reaction alcohol H H H H C C H H H H C C H O H alkene

17 CAN YOU / HAVE YOU? Write condensed structural formulas for and name alkyl halides. Describe some common organic reactions. Including: esterification, halogenation, hydration, hydrogenation Additional KEY Terms


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