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Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA INDEPENDENCE VISITOR CENTER PHILADELPHIA, PA SENIOR THESIS PRESENTATION.

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Presentation on theme: "Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA INDEPENDENCE VISITOR CENTER PHILADELPHIA, PA SENIOR THESIS PRESENTATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA INDEPENDENCE VISITOR CENTER PHILADELPHIA, PA SENIOR THESIS PRESENTATION APRIL 17, 2003 BY LISA BORNEMANN LIGHTING / ELECTRICAL

2 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA TABLE OF CONTENTS INDEPENDENCE VISITOR CENTER INTRODUCTION THEATER LIGHTING TICKET COUNTER LIGHTING MAIN HALL LIGHTING GLAZING STUDY NOT DISCUSSED: ELECTRICAL DESIGN STRUCTURAL DESIGN EXTERIOR LIGHTING

3 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA LOCATION INTRODUCTION Philadelphia, PA Redevelopment of Independence National Historical Park Independence Mall: Independence Visitor Center National Constitution Center Liberty Bell Pavilion

4 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA Picture courtesy of Brinjac Engineering BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS INTRODUCTION 54,000 square foot 2 story facility built above an existing 3 story parking garage. Steel building with a brick façade. Copper hip roof with skylights through part of it and a cupola in the center. Large windows cover both the east and west sides. Grand Opening: November 19, 2001

5 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA DESIGN TEAM INTRODUCTION Architect: Kallmann, McKinnell & Wood Architects Owners: Independence Visitor Center Corporation National Park Service Philadelphia Parking Authority MEP Engineers: Brinjac / Kambic & Associates Lighting Designers: Fisher Marantz Stone Master Planners: Olin Partnership

6 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA Philadelphia, PA: Latitude: 39° NLongitude: 75° W BUILDING ORIENTATION Ticket Counter Main Hall Theater INTRODUCTION

7 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA INDEPENDENCE VISITOR CENTER INTRODUCTION THEATER LIGHTING TICKET COUNTER LIGHTING MAIN HALL LIGHTING GLAZING STUDY

8 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA SPACE CONDITIONS THEATER FINISHES FLOORWALLSCEILINGFURNITURE Rubber – Matte dark gray ρ = 0.20 Acoustical Panels and drywall painted matte off-white Ρ = 0.55 Drywall painted matte off-white ρ = 0.70 Benches for 170 seats and Podium: Light wood with matte finish

9 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA DESIGN GOALS THEATER ILLUMINANCE LEVELS TASKHORIZONTAL Circulation during video0.1 – 0.2 fc Circulation before, after, and intermission 5 fc Reading before, after, and intermission 30 fc Speaker at podium30 fc

10 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA DESIGN GOALS THEATER To highlight the speaker at the podium Luminance Ratio 5:1 To have good facial modeling of the speaker and audience To provide adequate visibility for safe circulation at all times To provide comfortable viewing conditions To minimize the power density: below the recommended value of 1.6 W/sq. ft. for a motion picture theater

11 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA REFLECTED CEILING PLAN THEATER Recessed 6” aperture CFL downlight Cove mounted fluorescent T8 strip Recessed 4” aperture halogen adjustable accent light

12 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA CALCULATION RESULTS THEATER Illuminance levels Floor = 30 fc Illuminance levels Speaker = fc Wall = 2-3 fc Illuminance levels Floor = 3-4 fc Luminance Ratios Speaker : Wall = 5:1 Power Density 1.04 W/sq.ft. < 1.6 W/sq.ft.

13 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA FINAL RENDERINGS THEATER Path of egress during video

14 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA FINAL RENDERINGS THEATER

15 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA INDEPENDENCE VISITOR CENTER INTRODUCTION THEATER LIGHTING TICKET COUNTER LIGHTING MAIN HALL LIGHTING GLAZING STUDY

16 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA LOCATION TICKET COUNTER

17 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA SPACE CONDITIONS TICKET COUNTER WINDOW FINISHES FLOORWALLSCEILINGFURNITURE Rubber - Matte dark gray ρ = 0.20 Gypsum wall board painted off-white ρ = 0.55 Drywall painted matte off-white ρ = 0.70 Desk: Light wood with matte finish Counter: Dark gray, matte, ρ = 0.20

18 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA DESIGN GOALS ILLUMINANCE LEVELS TASKHORIZONTALVERTICAL Reading written or printed tasks30 fc VDT Screen3 fc TICKET COUNTER

19 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA DESIGN GOALS TICKET COUNTER To use facial modeling to make the workers look approachable To highlight the back wall to draw people’s attention To provide a comfortable place for people to work To prevent direct and reflected glare from VDT screens To prevent glare and shadows on the work plane To provide a power density that is below the recommended value of 1.5 W/sq. ft.

20 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA REFLECTED CEILING PLAN Backlit frosted glass wall TICKET COUNTER T8 fluorescent strip mounted behind glass wall for backlighting T8 strip mounted in cove as a wallwasher 6” aperture CFL downlight

21 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA BACKLIT WALL DETAILS TICKET COUNTER Fluorescent T8 strip White Back Wall Frosted Glass Wall SECTION AT BACKLIT WALLFRONT VIEW OF BACKWALL Acoustical Ceiling Tile 3M Film Office Backlit Frosted Glass Wall Fluorescent T8 strip

22 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA CALCULATION RESULTS TICKET COUNTER Illuminance levels Counters = 30 fc Floor behind main counter = 20 fc Floor behind side counters = 30 fc

23 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA CALCULATION RESULTS TICKET COUNTER Luminance Ratios: VDT Screen and surrounding counters = 1:3 Screen : computer = 1:4 Power Density: 1.16 W/sq.ft. < 1.5 W/sq.ft

24 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA FINAL RENDERINGS TICKET COUNTER

25 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA INDEPENDENCE VISITOR CENTER INTRODUCTION THEATER LIGHTING TICKET COUNTER LIGHTING MAIN HALL LIGHTING GLAZING STUDY

26 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA LOCATION MAIN HALL

27 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA SPACE CONDITIONS FINISHES FLOORWALLSCEILING SKYLIGHT GLAZING Gray-Green Terrazzo ρ = 0.30 Gypsum wall board painted off- white (Larson’s Cream) ρ = 0.55 Perforated metal deck w/ acoustical panels, painted matte white. Parts with skylights. ρ = 0.70 Total existing system: Tv=50% SC = 0.38 MAIN HALL

28 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA DESIGN GOALS ILLUMINANCE LEVELS TASKHORIZONTALVERTICAL Circulation10 fc3 fc MAIN HALL

29 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA DESIGN GOALS MAIN HALL To make the space feel like it is outside To increase the daylight in the space through addition of skylights To avoid as much direct glare as possible from skylights Integrate daylight with electric light To create a pleasing and inviting environment To provide a power density that is below the recommended value of 0.5 – 1.6 W/sq. ft. for a corridor or transition space

30 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA REDESIGN MAIN HALL T 5 HO Strip Uplighting the roof with light blue gels to match the color of daylight Surface mounted to bottom of truss, T5HO lamp with cross baffles. Additional Skylights

31 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA REDESIGN MAIN HALL Additional skylights will be added to the already existing skylight configuration Locations of additional skylights

32 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA REDESIGN MAIN HALL Direct Glare Prevention from Skylights Use Micro Sun Shielding Louvers embedded between the two panes of glass in the skylights. They reflect the direct solar rays while allowing the diffuse skylight to pass through. Diffuse Skylight Solar Radiation The Micro Sun Shielding Louver is used in this example. The skylights still appear clear.

33 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA CALCULATION RESULTS MAIN HALL With electric light only Illuminance on floor = 12 fc Power Density: 1.56 W/sq.ft. < 1.6W sq.ft.

34 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA RENDERINGS MAIN HALL

35 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA INDEPENDENCE VISITOR CENTER INTRODUCTION THEATER LIGHTING TICKET COUNTER LIGHTING MAIN HALL LIGHTING GLAZING STUDY

36 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA MAIN HALL GLAZING STUDY Calculations performed in Radiance Existing skylight configuration and new skylight configuration Dates: June 21 and December 21 Times: 9:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm Sky conditions: Clear Glazing: Existing Glazing – Transmittance = 54%, SC = 0.38 Calculation Results Existing skylight conditions do not provide a uniform illuminance on the floor due to the shape of the skylights. The maximum illuminance levels are the same for both configurations, but the new configuration is much more uniform There is plenty of light on the floor most times of the day and year. The times when electric light will be necessary are after 4:00 pm. December 4:00 pm: fc June 4:00 pm: fc

37 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA CHARACTERISTICS OF GLAZINGS COMPARED Glazing Visible Light Transmittance U-value Winter U-value SummerSHGCSC Outdoor Visible Light Reflectance Sungate 500 (2) Clear74% % Solarban 80 (2) Clear47% % Solarcool (2) Azuria26% % Solarban 60 (3) Azuria52% % MAIN HALL GLAZING STUDY

38 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA MAIN HALL GLAZING STUDY MECHANICAL LOAD COMPARISON Glazing TypeCooling Load (BTU/hr) Cooling Load (Tons) Heating Load (BTU/hr) Heating Load (Tons) Sungate 500 (2) Clear Solarban 80 (2) Clear Solarcool (2) Azuria Solarban 60 (3) Azuria Compared with mechanical loads for existing skylight configuration: Cooling = 11.7 tons Heating = 16.2 tons

39 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA CONCLUSION Additional skylights are recommended: Electric light is only rarely required People will feel close to the outdoors Minimal heating and cooling load changes with properly selected glazing Power densities were below requirements Design solutions meet the required criteria Designs had minimal intrusion on the spaces All fixtures were hidden in coves or at least recessed

40 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AE FACULTY DR. MISTRICK DR. MOECK ED WUNDERLEY AE FRIENDS KEVIN OLSAVSKY – BRINJAC ENGINEERING FISHER MARANTZ STONE FRIENDS AND FAMILY

41 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA QUESTIONS?????

42 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA CONTROLS THEATER

43 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA BACKLIT WALL DETAILS TICKET COUNTER

44 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA MAIN HALL GLAZING CONFIGURATION New glazing panes: 3’4” x 6’5” Old glazing panes: 3’4” x 2’1” New glazing Area: 1480 sq. ft. Old glazing Area: sq. ft. Increase in area by 162%

45 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA MAIN HALL STRUCTURAL STUDY Due to an increase in load with the skylights a structural study was performed Deflection and Moment Calculations were performed W10x22 + C6x8.2 W10x33 + W6x9 W10x22 New skylight added to existing skylight to match larger skylight W10x22 + C6X8.2

46 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA MAIN HALL STRUCTURAL STUDY

47 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA Power Density: Theater Type Lamp Wattage Input Wattage Number Fixtures Total Wattage FA FB FC Total Wattage1639 Square Footage1580 Power Density1.04 THEATER POWER DENSITY

48 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA TICKET COUNTER POWER DENSITY Power Density: Ticket Counter Type Lamp Wattage Input Wattage Number Fixtures Total Wattage FD FE FF FF Total Wattage842.6 Square Footage729 Power Density1.16

49 Lisa Bornemann Lighting/Electrical Independence Visitor Center Philadelphia, PA MAIN HALL POWER DENSITY Power Density: Main Hall Type Lamp Wattage Input Wattage Number Fixtures Total Wattage FG FH Total Wattage5768 Square Footage3700 Power Density1.56


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