Presentation on theme: "Low Smoke Emission Products:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Low Smoke Emission Products: This presentation was compiled by Jarek Chmielarski in Aug as an APDR* objective and contains (among others) argumentation for Armaflex Ultima, specially for the Swiss market, in opposition to currently requested non-halogen products (like NH/Armaflex) [slide 31].* APDR = Annual Performance & Development ReviewUltima, NH/Armaflex
2 Europe 95% due to smoke Population: 700 mln 2EuropePopulation: 700 mlnNo of fires: mln / p.a.No of fire deaths: / p.a.No of fire injuries: / p.a.95% due to smokeSome statistical data for the beginning.Additional slide (at the ready, in reserve) if more such introduction is needed.Sources: 2010 World Fire Statistic Report / 2006 CTIF Report - International Technical Committee for the Prevention and Extinction of FireSources: 2010 World Fire Statistic Report / 2006 CTIF Report - International Technical Committee for the Prevention and Extinction of Fire
3 95% Smoke is major killing factor in fire death; 395%Smoke is major killing factor in fire death;it is important to have smoke emission extremely limited in every minute of fire accident.95% of fire deaths or injuries happen due to smoke (not flames).Sources: 2010 World Fire Statistic Report / 2006 CTIF Report - International Technical Committee for the Prevention and Extinction of Fire
4 4Fire ProtectionActive fire protection: equip the building with fire detection and fire suppression features.Passive fire protection:compartmentalise the overall building through the use of fire resistant walls and floors.delay fire flashover by using high fire class construction products to provide more time to the building occupants for emergency evacuation.reduce the smoke emission by using low smoke class construction products to allow fast evacuation in case of firePictureAn accident when cooking initiated the fire in the top floor of an apartment building. Fire spread to the lower storey’s was prevented.
5 Fire development, flash-over is critical extinguishmentignitionfully developed firefire growthspread of flame,heat releasee.g. EN (SBI)It is important for the people to escape from the building before flash-over starts. With many low-Euroclass (D, E) products in the building flash-over may happen within minutes after ignition (sometimes even 1-2 minutes). On the other hand high-Euroclass (B, C) products delay flash-over for many minutes (e.g. 20 minutes) providing sufficient time for escape. However, even if this time is long if the building is full of smoke with no visibility and thus lost orientation then there is no chance to find the correct route for escape.decayinitial fireinflammatione.g. EN ISOdormanttime
6 Smoke effects on humans and equipment 6Smoke effects on humans and equipmentHigh smoke development limit the evacuation of inhabitantsToxic smoke gases cause death of humansCorrosiveness and contamination by soot (more relevant to materials than to humans and particularly sensitive for electronic equipment)Low smoke class construction productsHalogen free construction products
7 „Halogen Free” products 7„Halogen Free” productsHalogen free products do not contain the chemical elements from halogen group:FLUORINE (F),CHLORINE (Cl),BROMINE(Br),IODINE(I),ASTATINE (At)Halogen free insulation material eliminate the toxic problems of exhaust gases.In certain situation such as fire hologen and their reaction products can demage sensitive equipment (electronic, computer)
8 SMOKE REQUIREMENTS EUROPE (HIGHER than s3) Countryspecific smoke requirementsRequirement mandatory for following applicationsBelgiumnon-combustible B-s2,d0escape routes hospitalsFinlandB-s1, d0Dwellings, Accommodation premises, Assembly and business premises , offices , garageGermanyA1 or A2-s1,d0escape routesItalyB-s1/s2, d0LatviaB-s1,d0Netherlands (The)B–s2,d0residential and commercial buildingsNorwayB/ BL-s1,d0Pipe and duct insulation in escape routesPortugalBL-s2,d0Residential and non residential buildingsSpainBL-s1,d0Residential and non residential buildings - parkings, risk areas and protected special stairs and corridorsSwitzerlandCL-s2,d15.2 (VKF)From 2015Swedenresidential and commercial buildings -All escape routes and Br1 building (ceiling) are demanding a B-s1-d0 classificationSMOKE REQUIREMENTS EUROPE (HIGHER than s3)Additional slide (at the ready, in reserve) if information on smoke emission requirements in particular markets are needed.Many European countries have already implemented low smoke requirements for technical insulation products into local building codeseach month we hear a new development in the direction of more safety.The list is not necessarily complete.
9 Classification According to EN 13501-1 (1) The fire safety of construction products in the EU is determined by the Euro classes according to the EN standard. The main properties determining the Euro class for a specific product discloses if and how fast a product contributes to the fire.EN
10 EN EuroclassesThere are 7 classifications for construction products:Class A1, A2 products with differing degrees of limited combustibility;Class B-E products where flashover may occur within a certain time period;Class F where no performance parameter is determined
11 Explanation of Euroclass symbols performance description*A1no contribution to fireA2Negligible contribution to fire , no spread of fire from the area of the primary fire in the fire development phaseBvery limited contribution to fire, , no spread of fire from the area of the primary fire in the fire development phaseClimited contribution to fireDacceptable contribution to fireEacceptable reaction to fire in case of small fireFno requirements concerning the reaction to fireThis slide gives you an overview of Euroclass symbols* for symbols A, B, C, D, E, s1 and s2 this description is not a formal part of EN
12 Additional assesment Classes performance description*ss1 = no/small smoke developments2 = middle smoke developments3 = high smoke developmentdd0 = no flaming droplets/particles within 600 sec.d1 = no flaming droplets/particles persisting longer than 10 sec. within 600 sec.d2 = no performance determinedThis slide gives you an overview of Euroclass symbols* for symbols A, B, C, D, E, s1 and s2 this description is not a formal part of EN
13 Fire Tests for EN 13501-1 Eurolass Classification standardtestA1A2BCDEEN ISO 1182non-combustibility ovenXEN ISO 1716gross heat of combustion(calorific value)EN ISO 13823SBI-test(Single Burning Item)EN ISOsmall flame burnerAdditional slide (at the ready, in reserve) if more detailed information on Euroclass classification system is needed.
14 14Construction products are classified with their Euroclasses based on SBI test and small flame test.Picture from SBI test of standardised 25 mm thickness x 22 mm FEF tube. Gas fire through sand bed in the corner simulates a fire scenario in the building.EN 13823, Single Burning Item (SBI) – large-scale main test for heat release and smokeEN ISO , small flame ignitability testi
15 15SBI – test chamberAdditional slide (at the ready, in reserve) if more detailed information on SBI-testing is needed. This test chamber is Armacell’s own in Münster. Armacell has a lot of experience with SBI-testing, a few hundred tests are run every year.
16 Classification Criteria for Combustible Linear Pipe Insulation (tubes) test methodClassification criteria (limit)additional classificationBLEN andFIGRA ≤ 270 W/s andLFS edge of specimen andTHR600s ≤ 7,5 MJsmoke productionand flaming droplets/particlesEN ISOexposure = 30 sflame spread ≤ 150 mm within 60 sCLFIGRA ≤ 460 W/s andTHR600s ≤ 15 MJDLFIGRA ≤ 2100 W/sTHR600s ≤ 100 MJELexposure = 15 sflame spread ≤ 150 mm within 20 sflaming droplets/particlesFLno performance determinedAdditional slide (at the ready, in reserve) if more detailed information on Euroclass classification system is needed.LFS = Lateral Flame Spread (in SBI test)
17 Classification Criteria for Combustible Flat Insulation (sheets) test methodClassification criteria (limit)additional classificationBEN andFIGRA ≤ 120 W/s andLFS edge of specimen andTHR600s ≤ 7,5 MJsmoke productionand flaming droplets/particlesEN ISOexposure = 30 sflame spread ≤ 150 mm within 60 sCFIGRA ≤ 250 W/s andLFS edge of specimen andTHR600s ≤ 15 MJDFIGRA ≤ 750 W/sEexposure = 15 sflame spread ≤ 150 mm within 20 sflaming droplets/particlesFno performance determinedAdditional slide (at the ready, in reserve) if more detailed information on Euroclass classification system is needed.LFS = Lateral Flame Spread (in SBI test)
18 Classification Criteria for Combustible Linear Pipe Insulation (tubes) smoke development:classtest methodclassification criteria (limit)s1EN 13823SMOGRA ≤ 105 m²/s² andTSP600s ≤ 250 m²s2SMOGRA ≤ 580 m²/s² andTSP600s ≤ 1600 m²s3not s1 or s2SMOGRA – smoke growth rateTSP - total smoke productionflaming droplets/particles:d0 = no flaming droplets/particles in EN within 600 sd1 = no flaming droplets/particles persisting longer than 10s in EN within 600 sd2 = not d0 or d1ignition of the paper in EN ISO results in a d2 classificationAdditional slide (at the ready, in reserve) if more detailed information on Euroclass classification system is needed.
19 Classification Criteria for Combustible Flat Insulation (sheets) smoke development:classtest methodclassification criteria (limit)s1EN 13823SMOGRA ≤ 30 m²/s² andTSP600s ≤ 50 m²s2SMOGRA ≤ 180 m²/s² andTSP600s ≤ 200 m²s3not s1 or s2flaming droplets/particles:d0 = no flaming droplets/particles in EN within 600 sd1 = no flaming droplets/particles persisting longer than 10s in EN within 600 sd2 = not d0 or d1ignition of the paper in EN ISO results in a d2 classificationAdditional slide (at the ready, in reserve) if more detailed information on Euroclass classification system is needed.
20 FEF products Reaction to Fire Class FEF insulations like all organic materials are combustibleFlame retardans are to be added to FEF foam to ensure the acceptable RtF class „E”, „D”, „C” „B”Chloride and bromide are typical indigrents of flame retardants to ensure high RtF class „B”Brominated flame retardants are very effective but they lead to high smoke developmentArgumentation for „B” and „s1” combination.High performance on heat release shall be accompanied with similar high performance on low smoke emission.The typical smoke emission class of FEF insulation with good RtF class is „s3”
21 Armaflex Ultima – reaction to Fire Class Armaprene® Patented Technology - unique FEF recipeIt was possible to eliminate brominated flame retardants (belonging to halogens ) due to new technology Ultima is also PVC free.The content of overall halogens can be neglected due to very low overall smoke production in comparison to products with s3 smoke EuroclassThe new foam Armaflex Ultima combines high flame resistance with minimal smoke developmentVersion 2 of the slide:acc. to CE certificate of conformity, CE declaration of performance and PIM technical datasheet the smoke class published for Armaflex Ultima sheets ≤ 9 mm is: B-s1,d0. However this smoke class has not been verified, so for all Armaflex Ultima sheets (regardless of thickness) we use the class B-s2,d0. In such case it would make sense to revise the CE certificate of conformity, CE declaration of performance and PIM technical datasheet and correct for Armaflex Ultima sheets ≤ 9 mm the class from „s1” to „s2” to have the unificated information on product. This issue might be addressed to the product marketing manager.Armaflex Ultima is a unique FEF insulation product in Europe with its fire Euroclass BL-s1-d0 and B-s1,d0 / B-s2-d0. None of Armacell competitors can provide FEF insulation products with such high-calibre Euroclass (info valid in Aug. 2013). It means that Armacell is exclusive with its offer and it is a further argument for technical competence of Armacell. The point of this slide is to draw attention to the combination of both „parts” of the Euroclass:high „B” fire class, and in the same time,„s1” smoke production class, yielding almost no smoke.This unique FEF formula (recipe) was patented under the brandname „Armaprene”.Generally it is not easy to combine these both „B” and „s1” parameters in one products since typically fire retardands limit heat release however in the same time contribute to high smoke production. Additional challenge is to ensure not only this unique „B” and „s1” combination but also low thermal conductivity and high water vapour diffusion.Strong message: Armaflex Ultima is the unique, first of its kind product which has never been manufactured before by anybody. Competition can not offer any equivalent!tubes : BL-s1,d0sheets, 9 mm: B-s1,d0sheets, mm: B-s2,d0
22 Armaflex Ultima – B-s1, d0 vs B-s3, d0 Euroclass “B” class eliminates flash-over thus giving long time to escape before fire develops too much,“s3” class dramatically reduces time needed for escape because visibility and orientation in the building drops a lot in a short timeB-s1,d0“s1” class increase time needed for escape because of low smoke emissionArgumentation for „B” and „s1” combination.High performance on heat release shall be accompanied with similar high performance on low smoke emission.
23 Combination of „B” fire and „s1” Smoke Class Assures Safety of People in Case of Fire fire (heat-release) class B:very limited contribution to fire,no flash-over in fire development,safe time for escape ensuredmaterial is burning only locally where affected by fire from the burnerno fire propagation by material!The unique „B” and „s1” combination provides time for safe escape from the building before fire develops in flash-over effect. In SBI-test the result Euroclass „B” means no flash-over effect during 20 minutes of the test. Very little smoke emission means that during escape people will not inhale overdose of toxic fumes and will manage to escape (here limited value of smoke growth rate = SMOGRA is important, more detailed explanation in other following slides); in the same time very little smoke production (total smoke production = TSP) means that the air is still sufficiently transparent and minimum visibility is ensure in order not to get lost during escape.Having installed products with only „s3” class means: no time to escape before smoke develops, lost orientation, breathing / inhaling of toxic smoke. Having installed products with only „D” class means: no (or very limited) time to escape before flash-over.smoke class s1:practically (almost) no smoke!safe time for escape without inhalation of toxic fumes,assured visibility in the buildingOther than Armaflex Ultima burning objects / product might influence fire development in the building.
24 Smoke Emission Limited in Every Time-phase of Fire. It is important that a safe time for escape is provided and people at no time are inhaling toxic fumes that may prevent their successful escape.Important sub-parameter of „s1” class that ensures very limited rate of smoke emission at any time during fire is SMOGRA = Smoke Growth RateTarget of this slide is to logically and consequently drive from general request „safety of people” to detailed parameter SMOGRA.It is namely SMOGRA that differentiates Armaflex Ultima from standard black FEF (AF/Armaflex, Armaflex XG, etc.); Total Smoke Production = TSP stand alone for these products would yield easily class „s2”. It is SMOGRA that makes the difference and it is important to explain this unique value.
25 Armaflex Ultima – tubes: BL-s1, d0 THR600stotal heat releaseFIGRAfire growth rateHRRheat release rateArmaflex Ultima – tubes: BL-s1, d0limits for EuroclassesTHR600s [MJ]In order to get e.g. Euroclass „BL” classification for a product, both parameters (THR and FIGRA) must be below the limit with their average value from three tests. While for „DL” class the maximum limits for THR and FIGRA are relatively high, they are getting very limited for „CL” class and even divided by half for „BL” class. This shows that it takes the effort (and cost of the recipe) to achieve class „BL” starting from „DL”.FIGRA [W/s]FIGRA = 1000 x max. (HRRav(30s)(t) [kW] / (t [s] -300)); s < t ≤ 1500 s
26 SBI Performance of Armaflex Ultima Example of actual SBI smoke performance: comparison between standard black FEF and Armaflex Ultima the graph shows 10x lower smoke development (SMOGRA = Smoke Growth Rate) for Armaflex Ultima.s1
27 SBI test - White Light Optical Smoke Measuring System circular exhaust ductdRather technical slide, can be shown shortly in order to explain that smoke emission is measured based on loss on light intensity, re-calculated with special equation (equation A.26 from EN 13823).Smoke emission is being measured constantly every 3 seconds during 20 minutes of SBI test.SPR = (V [m3/s] / d [m]) * ln (I30…90/I(t)) [m2/s]I=[%] => loss on light intensity; d [m] => diameter of circular exhaust ductSPR => smoke production rate
28 Armaflex Ultima – tubes: BL-s1,d0 THR600stotal smoke productionSMOGRAsmoke growth rateSPRsmoke production rateArmaflex Ultima – tubes: BL-s1,d0limits for Euroclassesno limit for s3TSP600s [m2]no limit for s3In order to get e.g. Euroclass „s1” classification for a product, both parameters (TSP and SMOGRA) must be below the limit with their average value from three tests. Unlike for B, C and D heat release class, for smoke classes there are limits for s1 and s2 only. There is no limit for s3, so in fact s3 can not be even compared with „s2” not to mention „s1” since there is not limit for „s3” and it is not known what are the TSP and SMOGRA values.SMOGRA[m2/s2]TSP600s = 3 Σ maxSPR[(t),0]; SPR = (V [m3/s] / d [m]) * ln (I30…90/I(t)) [m2/s]; I=[%] => loss on light intensitySMOGRA = x max. (SPRav(60s)(t) [m2/s] / (t [s] -300)); s < t ≤ 1500 s
29 Results for Standard Black FEF Tubes: It Is Mainly SMOGRA that Matters. TSP600s [m2]For standard black FEF (e.g. AF/Armaflex, Armaflex XG, etc. from Armacell products and also standard competitive products) TSP (Total Smoke Production) stand alone would yield easily class „s2”, however SMOGRA (Smoke Growth Rate) would get rather high values, well beyond the „s2” maximum limit. This means that the key technical difference between standard black FEF and Armaflex Ultima is the rate of smoke production measured in every 3 seconds of time interval. In none of these 400 intervals during 1200 seconds test can SMOGRA value be over the limit (580 for „s2” and 105 for „s1”). Of course TSP must also be of low value for „s1” class.SMOGRA[m2/s2]
30 „s1”: safe SMOGRA Limit is Never Exceeded! (during 20 min. test!) SMOGRA [m2/s2]smoke growth rate105limit for „s1” classAccording to the classification standard EN the maximum limit of SMOGRA for „s1” class for tubes is 105 m2/s2. The SBI test of Armaflex Ultima (D 5186) shows the SMOGRA mean value of 79,74 m2/s2. It is assumed that the SMOGRA limit of 105 m2/s2 can be considered as a safe one, i.e. smoke development during fire will be such low that it will not affect visibility and orientation in searching for escape routes. Moreover in none 3 seconds period of time smoke production rate will overstep a defined safe limit thus preventing inhalation of overdosed toxic fumes.SMOGRA = x max. (SPRav(60s)(t) [m2/s] / (t [s] -300)); s < t ≤ 1500 s; when TSP(t) > 6 m2 and SPRav(t) > 0,1 m2/s
31 Both SMOGRA and TSP Values Are Well Below the Limit SMOGRA limit for „s1” class = 105 m2/s2TSP limit for „s1” class = 250 m2For Armaflex Ultima both critical smoke test parameters SMOGRA and TSP are well below safety limit for „s1” class.SMOGRA [m2/s2]For Armaflex Ultima SMOGRA is 24% below the „s1” limit and TSP even 38% below. TSP (Total Smoke Production) is also very important parameter. It shows that during the first critical 600 seconds (10 minutes) of fire total emited and gathered smoke in the building will also be of low value, thus visibility and escape chance will not be impaired.The table with the results is taken from the teet report D 5186.
32 Thank You For Your Attention ! Low VOC (Volatile Organic Compund) emission statement is based on the certificate D Armaflex Ultima fulfills the Dibt/AgBB scheme "Health-related evaluation for Volatile Organic Compund Emissions (VOC and SVOC) form Building Products 2010/ LCI list 2010.Dibt = Deutsches Institut für BautechnikAgBB = Ausschuß zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Bauprodukten (commission for evaluation of construction products in health aspects)
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