# PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES. Atoms vs. Ions  Atoms = same number P + & E -  Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0  charge is ZERO  Ions = same # P +, …but more.

## Presentation on theme: "PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES. Atoms vs. Ions  Atoms = same number P + & E -  Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0  charge is ZERO  Ions = same # P +, …but more."— Presentation transcript:

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES

Atoms vs. Ions  Atoms = same number P + & E -  Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0  charge is ZERO  Ions = same # P +, …but more or less E -  Ex: (+3) + (-4) = -1  Ex: (+3) + (-2) = +1  Charge is (+ or -) *sodium ion laser is used to determine the temperature in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere

Ions: What and Why?  An Ion is an atom with a + or -charge  *Cation = ion with + charge  *Anion = ion with - charge  Goal: fill outermost shell (Octet Rule)  Ex. Na = 11 electrons (7 more until full shell)  Na +1 = 10 electrons (outermost shell full)  Valence Electrons (outermost shell electrons) are used for bonding

Essential Question: What are the different groups of elements and how are they organized in the Periodic Table?

Quick Electron Lesson  Electrons are found in the energy levels.  Electrons affect the properties of elements  Remember atoms have a ZERO CHARGE  If an atom has a charge  ONLY affects ELECTRONS  # P + ≠ #E -  If Positive (+) charge, TAKE AWAY electrons  If Negative (-) charge, ADD ON electrons

Organization

How to organize elements?  Early scientists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups.  Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.

How It Works  Rows (across) = PERIODS  Goes in order of ATOMIC NUMBER  Determines # energy levels  Elements within a period = PROPERTIES CHANGE Periodic law: the pattern of properties within a period repeats as you move from one period to the next

How It Works  Columns (up and down) = GROUPS or FAMILIES  Determines the # valence electrons  Elements within a group = SIMILAR PROPERTIES

3 Broad Classes of Elements Metals Nonmetals Metalloids “Staircase”

3 Broad Classes of Elements 1. Metals:  Good Conductors  High Luster or Sheen (Shiny)  Ductile  Malleable 2. Nonmetals: (Opposite of metals) 3. Metalloids: Act as a metal or nonmetal

Metallic Trend  Most metallic elements are Cesium (Cr) and Francium (Fr) In your journal, outline the periodic table and include the trends.

Main Groups 1. Alkali Metals 2. Alkaline Metals 3. Transition Metals 4. Metalloids 5. Nonmetals 6. Halogens 7. Noble Gasses 8. Lanthanides 9. Actinides

Group 1: Alkali Metals “The Alkali Boys”  Except Hydrogen  Traits:  1 valence electron  Lose valence electron  +1 charge   VERY REACTIVE  (Almost) always bonds with halogens Brothas:

Group 7: Halogens “The Halogen Girls”  Common Salts:  Chlorine (Cl)  Bromine (Br)  Iodine (I)  Traits:  7 valence electrons  Gains 1 valence electrons  -1 charge  VERY REACTIVE  Almost awalys bonds with Alkali brothas Sistas:

Why They Make Such a Cute Couple… Reason for Bonding Goal: To settle down Meet the OCTET RULE Valence electrons = bonding Alkali Brothas = 1 valence electron Halogen Sistas = 7 valence electrons

In Addition…Charge  No Charge = No Drama!  Alkali (Sodium) = +1 charge  Halogens (Chlorine) = -1 charge  NaCl = (+1) + (-1) = 0

Elbow Partner  What charge do alkali metals have? Halogens?  What are valence electrons?  Why do alkali and halogens go so well together (two reasons)?

Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals “Players”  Traits:  2 valence electrons  Loses 2 valence electrons  +2 charge  (Almost) always bonds with TWO halogen sistas OR 1 Group 6 nonmetal Playas:

Group 8: Noble Gases “The Snobs”  Traits :  8 valence electrons (Octet Rule)   NO CHARGE (no drama)   NOT REACTIVE  Bonds with NO ONE  Too good for anyone else. The Snobs:

In between Groups: Transition Metals  Scandium to Zinc  Zinc to Mercury  Found in middle of table  Ones in each column = similar properties  Different charges  Some are synthetic  Inner Transition Metals  Lanthanides and Actinides  Rare Earth Elements

Elbow Partner  What do metalloids separate (what are the found between)?  Why are the noble gasses “snobs?”  Describe the traits of alkaline earth metals (charge, number of valence electrons).

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