Presentation on theme: "PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS NOTES. Atoms vs. Ions Atoms = same number P + & E - Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0 charge is ZERO Ions = same # P +, …but more."— Presentation transcript:
Atoms vs. Ions Atoms = same number P + & E - Ex: (+3) + (-3) = 0 charge is ZERO Ions = same # P +, …but more or less E - Ex: (+3) + (-4) = -1 Ex: (+3) + (-2) = +1 Charge is (+ or -) *sodium ion laser is used to determine the temperature in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere
Ions: What and Why? An Ion is an atom with a + or -charge *Cation = ion with + charge *Anion = ion with - charge Goal: fill outermost shell (Octet Rule) Ex. Na = 11 electrons (7 more until full shell) Na +1 = 10 electrons (outermost shell full) Valence Electrons (outermost shell electrons) are used for bonding
Essential Question: What are the different groups of elements and how are they organized in the Periodic Table?
Quick Electron Lesson Electrons are found in the energy levels. Electrons affect the properties of elements Remember atoms have a ZERO CHARGE If an atom has a charge ONLY affects ELECTRONS # P + ≠ #E - If Positive (+) charge, TAKE AWAY electrons If Negative (-) charge, ADD ON electrons
How to organize elements? Early scientists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups. Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
How It Works Rows (across) = PERIODS Goes in order of ATOMIC NUMBER Determines # energy levels Elements within a period = PROPERTIES CHANGE Periodic law: the pattern of properties within a period repeats as you move from one period to the next
How It Works Columns (up and down) = GROUPS or FAMILIES Determines the # valence electrons Elements within a group = SIMILAR PROPERTIES
3 Broad Classes of Elements Metals Nonmetals Metalloids “Staircase”
3 Broad Classes of Elements 1. Metals: Good Conductors High Luster or Sheen (Shiny) Ductile Malleable 2. Nonmetals: (Opposite of metals) 3. Metalloids: Act as a metal or nonmetal
Metallic Trend Most metallic elements are Cesium (Cr) and Francium (Fr) In your journal, outline the periodic table and include the trends.
Group 1: Alkali Metals “The Alkali Boys” Except Hydrogen Traits: 1 valence electron Lose valence electron +1 charge VERY REACTIVE (Almost) always bonds with halogens Brothas:
Group 7: Halogens “The Halogen Girls” Common Salts: Chlorine (Cl) Bromine (Br) Iodine (I) Traits: 7 valence electrons Gains 1 valence electrons -1 charge VERY REACTIVE Almost awalys bonds with Alkali brothas Sistas:
Why They Make Such a Cute Couple… Reason for Bonding Goal: To settle down Meet the OCTET RULE Valence electrons = bonding Alkali Brothas = 1 valence electron Halogen Sistas = 7 valence electrons
In Addition…Charge No Charge = No Drama! Alkali (Sodium) = +1 charge Halogens (Chlorine) = -1 charge NaCl = (+1) + (-1) = 0
Elbow Partner What charge do alkali metals have? Halogens? What are valence electrons? Why do alkali and halogens go so well together (two reasons)?
Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals “Players” Traits: 2 valence electrons Loses 2 valence electrons +2 charge (Almost) always bonds with TWO halogen sistas OR 1 Group 6 nonmetal Playas:
Group 8: Noble Gases “The Snobs” Traits : 8 valence electrons (Octet Rule) NO CHARGE (no drama) NOT REACTIVE Bonds with NO ONE Too good for anyone else. The Snobs:
In between Groups: Transition Metals Scandium to Zinc Zinc to Mercury Found in middle of table Ones in each column = similar properties Different charges Some are synthetic Inner Transition Metals Lanthanides and Actinides Rare Earth Elements
Elbow Partner What do metalloids separate (what are the found between)? Why are the noble gasses “snobs?” Describe the traits of alkaline earth metals (charge, number of valence electrons).