Presentation on theme: "Non-Metals & Metalloids. Properties of Non-Metals Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals are not ductile or malleable. Solid."— Presentation transcript:
Properties of Non-Metals Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals are not ductile or malleable. Solid non-metals are brittle and break easily. They are dull. Many non-metals are gases. Sulfur
Properties of Nonmetals When nonmetals react with metals, one or more electrons move from the metal atoms to the nonmetal atoms. - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Hydrogen The hydrogen square sits atop Family AI, but it is not a member of that family. Hydrogen is in a class of its own. It’s a gas at room temperature. It has one proton and one electron in its one and only energy level. Hydrogen only needs 2 electrons to fill up its valence shell.
Families of Nonmetals Because the chemical properties of hydrogen differ very much from those of the other elements, it really cannot be grouped into a family. - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals Each element in the carbon family has atoms that can gain, lose, or share four electrons when reacting with atoms of other elements.
Nitrogen Family The nitrogen family is named after the element that makes up 78% of our atmosphere. This family includes non-metals, metalloids, and metals. Atoms in the nitrogen family have 5 valence electrons. They tend to share electrons when they bond. Other elements in this family arphosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.
Families of Nonmetals Group 15, the nitrogen family, contains two nonmetals: nitrogen and phosphorus. These non- metals usually gain or share three electrons when reacting with atoms of other elements. - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Oxygen Family Atoms of this family have 6 valence electrons. Most elements in this family share electrons when forming compounds. Oxygen is the most abundant element in the earth’ s crust. It is extremely active and combines with almost all elements.
Families of Nonmetals Group 16, the oxygen family, contains three nonmetals: oxygen, sulfur, and selenium. These elements usually gain or share two electrons when reacting with atoms of other elements. - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Halogen Family The elements in this family are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Halogens have 7 valence electrons, which explains why they are the most active non- metals. They are never found free in nature. Halogen atoms only need to gain 1 electron to fill their outermost energy level. They react with alkali metals to form salts.
Families of Nonmetals The Group 17 elements are the most reactive nonmetals. Atoms of these elements easily form compounds by sharing or gaining one electron when reacting with atoms of other elements. - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals The elements in Group 18 are known as the noble gases. They do not ordinarily form compounds because atoms of noble gases do not usually gain, lose, or share electrons. - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Noble Gases Noble Gases are colorless gases that are extremely un-reactive. One important property of the noble gases is their inactivity. They are inactive because their outermost energy level is full. Because they do not readily combine with other elements to form compounds, the noble gases are called inert. The family of noble gases includes helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. All the noble gases are found in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere.
The Metalloids The metalloids have some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals. The most useful property of the metalloids is their varying ability to conduct electricity. - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Properties of Metalloids Metalloids (metal-like) have properties of both metals and non-metals. They are solids that can be shiny or dull. They conduct heat and electricity better than non- metals but not as well as metals. They are ductile and malleable. Silicon