Presentation on theme: "The five general types of reaction are combination, decomposition, single- replacement, double-replacement, and combustion."— Presentation transcript:
The five general types of reaction are combination, decomposition, single- replacement, double-replacement, and combustion.
A combination reaction is a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance. Magnesium + nitrogen yields magnesium nitride
Products: It will always just produce ONE product Group A metal and a nonmetal react, the compound is the metal cation and the nonmetal anion 2K(s) +Cl 2 (g) 2KCl(s) When two nonmetals react in a combination reaction, more than one product possible S(s) + O 2 (g) SO 2 (g) 2S(s) + 3O 2 (g) 2SO 3 (g) More than one product may also result from the combination reaction of a transition metal and a nonmetal Fe(s) + S(s) FeS(s) 2Fe(s) + 3S(s) Fe 2 S 3 (s)
Complete and balance this equation for a combination reaction. Be + O 2 Write and balance the equation for the formation of magnesium nitride (Mg 3 N 2 ) from its elements.
A decomposition reaction is a chemical change in which a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products. Copper chloride decomposes to copper and chloride
Products: The products can be any combination of elements and compounds. Usually difficult to predict. A simple binary compound will break down to its constituents. Most decomposition reactions require energy in the form of light, heat or electricity 2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O 2 (g)
Complete and balance this decomposition reaction HI Write the formula for the binary compound that decomposes to the products H 2 and Br 2
A single replacement reaction is a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound. Magnesium replaces hydrogen in hydrochloric acid to make magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas HCl + Mg H 2 + MgCl 2
Whether one metal will displace another metal from a compound depends upon the relative reactivities of the two metals. A reactive metal will replace any metal listed below it in the activity series.
A halogen can replace another halogen from a compound. The activity of the halogens decrease as you go down. Br 2 (aq) + NaI(aq) NaBr(aq) + I 2 (aq) Br 2 (aq) + NaCl(aq) No Reaction
Complete the equations for these single replacement reactions in aqueous solution. Balance each equation. Put “no reaction” if a reaction does not occur. Fe(s) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Cl 2 (aq) + NaI(aq) Ca(aq) + H 2 O(l)
A chemical change involving an exchange of positive ions between two compounds.
One of the products is only slightly soluble and precipitates from solution. One of the products is a gas. One product is a molecular compound such as water.
Write the products of these double- replacement reactions. Then balance each equation. NaOH(aq) + Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) (Iron(III)hydroxide is a precipitate) Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + H 3 PO 4 (aq) (Barium phosphate is a precipitate)
A combustion reaction is a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 (g) 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(l) The complete combustion of a hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water.
Write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of each compound. Formic acid (HCOOH) Heptane (C 7 H 16 )