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Presentation on theme: "ELEMENT FAMILIES."— Presentation transcript:


2 Hydrogen The hydrogen square sits atop Family I, but it is not a member of that family. Hydrogen is in a class of its own. It’s a gas at room temperature.

3 Hydrogen Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenburg.
Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles

4 Alkali Metals The alkali family is found in the first column of the periodic table. Atoms of the alkali metals have a single electron in their outermost level. They are shiny, have the consistency of clay, and are easily cut with a knife.

5 Alkali Metals They are the most reactive metals.
They react violently with water. Alkali metals are never found as free elements in nature. They are always bonded with another element.

6 Alkaline Earth Metals Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2)
Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature. Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca

7 Transition Metals Elements in groups 3-12 Less reactive harder metals
Includes metals used in jewelry and construction. Metals used “as metal.”

8 Transition Metals These are the metals you are probably most familiar with: copper, tin, zinc, iron, nickel, gold, and silver. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. Transition elements have properties similar to one another and to other metals, but their properties do not fit in with those of any other family.

9 Transition Metals The compounds of transition metals are usually brightly colored and are often used to color paints.

10 Boron Family Elements in group 13
The Boron Family is named after the first element in the family. This family includes a metalloid (boron), and the rest are metals.

11 Boron Family Aluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a “disposable metal.” This family includes the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust (aluminum).

12 Carbon Family Elements in group 14
Contains elements important to life and computers. Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors.

13 Carbon Family Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry.
Organic chemistry Carbon-14 Used in Radioactive Dating

14 Nitrogen Family Elements in group 15
Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere. Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things.

15 Nitrogen Family This family includes non-metals, metalloids, and metals. Other elements in this family are phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus.

16 Oxygen Family or Chalcogens
Elements in group 16 Oxygen, Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium, Polonium Many things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)

17 Oxygen Family Oxygen is necessary for respiration.
Oxygen is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust. It is extremely active and combines with almost all elements.

18 The most abundant element in the earth’s crust is oxygen.

19 Halogen Family The elements in this family are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Halogens are the most active non-metals. They are never found free in nature. Uses include halogen lamps and used as disinfectants. They react with alkali metals to form salts.

20 Noble Gases Noble Gases are colorless gases that are extremely un-reactive. One important property of the noble gases is their inactivity. They are inactive because their outermost energy level is full. Because they do not readily combine with other elements to form compounds, the noble gases are called inert. All the noble gases are found in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere.

21 Noble Gases The family of noble gases includes helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.

22 Rare Earth Elements The thirty rare earth elements are composed of the lanthanide and actinide series. One element of the lanthanide series and most of the elements in the actinide series are called trans-uranium, which means synthetic or man-made.

23 Uranium a Rare Earth Element
Found in mineral Pitchblende Geiger Counter Used to detect radiation

24 The End

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