2HydrogenThe hydrogen square sits atop Family I, but it is not a member of that family.Hydrogen is in a class of its own.It’s a gas at room temperature.
3Hydrogen Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenburg. Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles
4Alkali MetalsThe alkali family is found in the first column of the periodic table.Atoms of the alkali metals have a single electron in their outermost level.They are shiny, have the consistency of clay, and are easily cut with a knife.
5Alkali Metals They are the most reactive metals. They react violently with water.Alkali metals are never found as free elements in nature. They are always bonded with another element.
6Alkaline Earth Metals Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2) Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature.Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca
7Transition Metals Elements in groups 3-12 Less reactive harder metals Includes metals used in jewelry and construction.Metals used “as metal.”
8Transition MetalsThese are the metals you are probably most familiar with: copper, tin, zinc, iron, nickel, gold, and silver.They are good conductors of heat and electricity.Transition elements have properties similar to one another and to other metals, but their properties do not fit in with those of any other family.
9Transition MetalsThe compounds of transition metals are usually brightly colored and are often used to color paints.
10Boron Family Elements in group 13 The Boron Family is named after the first element in the family.This family includes a metalloid (boron), and the rest are metals.
11Boron FamilyAluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a “disposable metal.”This family includes the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust (aluminum).
12Carbon Family Elements in group 14 Contains elements important to life and computers.Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors.
13Carbon Family Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry. Organic chemistryCarbon-14 Used in Radioactive Dating
14Nitrogen Family Elements in group 15 Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere.Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things.
15Nitrogen FamilyThis family includes non-metals, metalloids, and metals.Other elements in this family are phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus.
16Oxygen Family or Chalcogens Elements in group 16Oxygen, Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium, PoloniumMany things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)
17Oxygen Family Oxygen is necessary for respiration. Oxygen is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust.It is extremely active and combines with almost all elements.
18The most abundant element in the earth’s crust is oxygen.
19Halogen FamilyThe elements in this family are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.Halogens are the most active non-metals.They are never found free in nature.Uses include halogen lamps and used as disinfectants.They react with alkali metals to form salts.
20Noble GasesNoble Gases are colorless gases that are extremely un-reactive.One important property of the noble gases is their inactivity. They are inactive because their outermost energy level is full.Because they do not readily combine with other elements to form compounds, the noble gases are called inert.All the noble gases are found in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere.
21Noble GasesThe family of noble gases includes helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.
22Rare Earth ElementsThe thirty rare earth elements are composed of the lanthanide and actinide series.One element of the lanthanide series and most of the elements in the actinide series are called trans-uranium, which means synthetic or man-made.
23Uranium a Rare Earth Element Found in mineral PitchblendeGeiger Counter Used to detect radiation