Presentation on theme: "Kiera Schiavo. Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons Understand transformation of alkanes to alkenes, and vice versa Understand."— Presentation transcript:
Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons Understand transformation of alkanes to alkenes, and vice versa Understand interesting reaction between halogens and unsaturated hydrocarbons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon: hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Saturated Hydrocarbon: chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon and hydrogen and these atoms are linked together exclusively by single bonds. Different due to the number of bonds
Hydrogenation: a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and another compound or element to saturate organic compounds. Hydrogen is passed through the compound to saturate it. Double and triple bonds are replaced with single bonds and a maximum hydrogen content
Alkane = Saturated hydrocarbon, containing only single bonds. Alkene = Unsaturated hydrocarbon, containing double bonds. Alkyne = Unsaturated hydrocarbon, containing triple bonds. Transformation due to hydrogenation
Halogen Addition Reaction: Simple organic reaction where a halogen molecule is added to the carbon–carbon double bond of an alkene functional group. Halogen in underwater fireworks is Chlorine The more stable the alkene the faster it is formed Factors that stabilize the alkene also stabilize the incipient alkene in the transition state This lowers activation energy
Activation energy: The minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction. Many reactions require high temperatures before they can begin.. However, in reactions like those between halogens and unsaturated hydrocarbons the activation energy is low enough for the reaction to occur spontaneously at room temperature.
When CaC2 is placed in water acetylene gas is produced. Acetylene gas is an alkyne Cl2 gas is produced in the flask containing HCl and bleach As the two types of bubbles collide, they create enough energy to initiate a reaction Chlorine is electron-attracting Able to break the triple bond so electrons can bond with the chlorine atoms. Exothermic reaction More energy is released by bond breaking than needed to build C-Cl bonds. Excess energy is seen as flashes of light