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Bringing light to life March 2012 Najmi Kamal Power Design Engineer for Lighting.

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Presentation on theme: "Bringing light to life March 2012 Najmi Kamal Power Design Engineer for Lighting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bringing light to life March 2012 Najmi Kamal Power Design Engineer for Lighting

2 Applications General Illumination  Retrofit  Commercial  Professional Back Lighting  Portable  Monitor  Digital TV Automotive  Exterior Lighting Applications General Illumination  Retrofit  Commercial  Professional Back Lighting  Portable  Monitor  Digital TV Automotive  Exterior Lighting Expertise AC/DC  Analog  Digital DC/DC  Analog  Digital Linear Wireless & PLC Light Measurement Expertise AC/DC  Analog  Digital DC/DC  Analog  Digital Linear Wireless & PLC Light Measurement Full System Solutions Power Management Multi-String Single-String Multi-Stage Single-Stage Monitoring Communication Full System Solutions Power Management Multi-String Single-String Multi-Stage Single-Stage Monitoring Communication Resources EVMs Cook Book Ref. designs Sample software Application reports Local design services Lighting training support Resources EVMs Cook Book Ref. designs Sample software Application reports Local design services Lighting training support TI Solid State Lighting (SSL) Core Competencies Lighting Know-How High Performance Solution 2

3 3 Market Segment Focus High Power Wide Area LM340x Downlighting LM3464,LM3466 LED Lamp LM3445,TPS92310 Automotive LM342x, LM3409 Street Lights Parking Lights Ext. Building Energy Saving intelligent Lights Public Buildings Commercial Energy Saving Cost driven High Light quality Cost driven Fast growth

4 TI Lighting System Solution NSC + TI = strong system level know-how 4

5 Lighting Portfolio LED driver Architecture Dimming techniques LED driver MR16 LED bulb design Controller, Ref design High brightness LEDs driver Off line LED Bulb/T8 Ref design Multi Channel LED driver System solutions ( Triac, DALI, 0 to 10V) WEBENCH Architect

6 6 Texas Instrument’s Current LED Driver Solutions Quick Selection guide

7 DC/DC Buck Converters for LED Lighting 2A 1.5A 1A 0.5A 0.35A TPS92510 (RTM:10/2011) MAX LED Current Input Voltage (V) LM3402HV LM3402 LM3404HV LM3404 LM3406HV LM3406 A LM3405 LM3407 LM3414HV LM3414 TPS92501 (RTM:12/2011)

8 How to drive LEDs? With current (high end system) – Light output is proportional to forward current – Brightness AND color can change with current With power(low end system) – Bulb

9 N or P FET

10 Duty Cycle Limits Max VO in Bucks High Side N-MOSFETs (internal or external FETs) 10 Must turn off for ~200 ns each cycle to recharge C BOOT The max number of LEDs is then: The lower the switching frequency, f SW, the closer V O-MAX is to V IN

11 PFET Bucks Can Provide 100% Duty Cycle High Side P-MOSFETs 11 Gate is driven below source to turn the PFET ON Gate can drive to VCC indefinitely PFET can stay on indefinitely True 100% duty cycle capability Buck is better than buck-boost Better efficiency Less parts Faster dimming

12 Dimming

13 13 Various dimming techniques Dimming using PWM signal – White LEDs change Colour over Current! – Solution: Maintain Current and Change ON-Time = PWM

14 14 Two different PWM dimming methods First method: Dim 1: Continuous inductor current (Good EMC, extra Mosfet ) Second method: Dim 2: more efficient (2khz dim max)

15 Output capacitor for a Buck topology

16 + - + L C O VIN D Δ I L V FB V F R Δ I C Io Vo V o Limited by V IN C out not needed Continuous output current, low EMI Easy to stabilize, if needed Inherent protections against failure 16 Buck (step-down) DCM or CCM

17 17 BUCK - To Cap or Not to Cap No Output Capacitor No output cap provides high output impedanceNo output cap provides high output impedance Saves a componentSaves a component Leads to higher LED ripple currentLeads to higher LED ripple current May generate more electromagnetic interference (EMI)May generate more electromagnetic interference (EMI) With Output Capacitor Adding an output cap reduces ripple currentAdding an output cap reduces ripple current Small cap + small inductor is smaller than one large inductorSmall cap + small inductor is smaller than one large inductor Slows pulse-width modulation (PWM) dimmingSlows pulse-width modulation (PWM) dimming Must be rated to V IN in case of output open circuitMust be rated to V IN in case of output open circuit

18 18 BUCK - To Cap or Not to Cap No Output Cap No Output Cap With Output Cap With Output Cap Note inductor height as well 4.5mm1.4mm

19 Three Pieces of the Puzzle Thermal – Critical. Good designs integrate heat sinking into the design of the lamp Optical – Just as critical, must be integrated into the mechanical design of the lamp LED Driver – Critical. Must be good designs. (Efficient, small size, EMI/Safety proved) 19

20 LED Drivers

21 LM3409/09HV: High-Side PFET Buck Controller 21 – V IN 6V to 42V (LM3409) – V IN 6V to 75V (LM3409HV) – External power PFET 100% Duty Cycle Capable Output Currents up to 4A – Differential, high-side current sense Simplifies system wiring – PWM dimming and analog dimming at 1000:1 – Thermally enhanced eMSOP-10 package – No control-loop compensation

22 22 LM3401 Hysteretic PFET controller HB LED Driver Key Features V IN Range: 4.5V – 35V Output range: 0.2V (Vfb) to V IN, adjusts to deliver constant current to up to 9 HB LEDs in series with scalable LED current > 2A No output cap, no compensation components Logic level dimming 1% to 100%, 70nS delay Controlled start up allows PWM at Vin for dimming PFET driver 100% duty cycle capable Adjustable Dual Side Hysteresis – Adjustable ripple current – Flexible inductor selection – Fine tuning of switching frequency up to 1.5MHz MSOP-8 package Applications: Automotive Lighting, General Illumination, MR16 replacement, Industrial Lighting, Gaming, High-end LCD Backlighting

23 23 Hysteretic Control (LM3401) Fast load Transient / no compensation required F sw changes with V IN and V OUT I LED Ripple constant 23

24 24 Runs from 6V to 35V Drives one white LED in at 800 mA High-side PFET topology can do 100% duty cycle Ref design: LM Cent-Sized PCB

25 25 Key Features: COT V IN Range: – LM340X: 6V – 42V, Buck – LM340XHV: 6V – 75V, Buck True average current control Two PWM LED dimming options: – Fast logic pin PWM dimming – LM3406: 2-wire dimming by VIN pin- 70% Feedback Voltage = 200mV Internal NFET for reduced parts count Switching Frequency up to 1MHz Exposed pad eTSSOP-14 package Drives 1W, 3W, and higher powered LEDs LM3402/4/6 and LM3402HV/4HV/6HV 0.5A/1.0A/1.5A HB LED Driver Fast PWM Dim 2-Wire Dim Applications: Automotive Lighting, General Illumination, Industrial Lighting, Arcitectual

26 COT Control (LM3402/4/6) Fast load Transient / no compensation required Ton is inversely proportional to V IN F sw is constant with V IN I LED Ripple is variable 26 T ON

27 27 The LM3406 has the switching frequency constant not only with respect to the input voltage but also to the output voltage Instead of having a fixed reference, this timer references V OUT so that frequency is truly fixed. COT Control Revised: LM

28 28 LM3405A 1A LED Driver Existing SOT-23 pkg (LM3405AXMK) can drive ~ 600mA for an MR16 application eMSOP8 version of the LM3405A can drive ~ 1A in an MR16 application Key Features V IN Range from 3V to 22V Low 205mV Feedback Voltage Self-Adjusting Output to deliver Constant 1A Current PWM Dim Pin Low Side Current Sense With External Resistor Low 30nA Shutdown Current Internal NFET for reduced parts count 1.6 MHz Switching Frequency Tiny 6 Lead TSOT package Current Mode Control with internal compensation SOT23-6 eMSOP-8

29 Support LED power up to 60W*: 18x 3W HBLEDs Patented True Average Current Control Provides ±3% Accuracy to Average LED Current Requires NO external current sensing resistor Up to 96% efficiency,1 active component High contrast ratio – (Minimum dimming current pulse width <10 µS) Adjustable Constant LED current from 350mA to 1000mA – ±3% LED current accuracy Support PWM /analog dimming and thermal fold-back Wide input voltage range: – 4.5V to 42V (LM3414) – 4.5V to 65V (LM3414HV) Constant Switching Frequency – adjustable from 250 kHz to 1000 kHz Thermal shutdown protection ePSOP-8 or LLP-8 package LM3414/14HV Low Side Converter for High Power LED Drives 29

30 TPS92550 (LML416504) LED Driver Module Wide Input Voltage Range : 4.5V - 65V Can drive up to 18 LEDs in series with 65V input LED current accurately trimmed to +/-3% 450mA LED current + fine tuning by external resistor (= analog dimming!) Integrated shielded inductor and power components Efficiency up to 95% Input Under-Voltage Lock-Out (UVLO) Stable with ceramic and low ESR capacitors Low radiated and conducted emissions LED open and short circuit protection Thermal Shutdown Only 3 external passive components needed Simple PCB layout and high Power Density RoHS Compliant 30 Actual LML Module

31 31 An Evolution of Simple 350mA LED Buck Driver Solution (TO-MOD-7 Module) LED+ IADJ GND LED- DIM 4 th Gen LED Buck DC-DC Driver SMT Module+1Cs 3 rd Gen LED Buck DC-DC Driver (Higher Integration) IC+L+D+2Rs+2Cs

32 Retrofit MR16

33 AC Transformer for MR16 Reference Designs Issue: Resistive load = PF Doesn’t switch off at 0v input Small form factor LED MR16 Replacement Solutions

34 34 LM A HB LED Driver Key Features: floating buck V IN Range: 4.5V to 30V Less than ±10% load current variation Adjustable switching frequency from 150 kHz to 1 MHz Internal low side NFET for reduced parts count Feedback Voltage = 200mV Fast PWM dimming enabled Exposed pad eMSOP-8 package Drives 1W LEDs Applications: Automotive Lighting, General Illumination, Industrial Lighting

35 Architecture of the LM3407

36 36 Runs from low voltage: 11VAC to 20VAC or 14V to 30VDC – Magnetic transformers only – Nominal 12VAC or 24VDC inputs Drive three white LEDs in series at 350 mA ±10% 1 MHz switching frequency for minimum inductor size Low-side buck topology uses small, efficient N-MOSFET Complete solution including a diode bridge and holdup capacitor fits in standard MR-16 bulb housing LM MR-16 Retrofit

37 Halogen MR16 vs. SSL MR16 waveforms 37

38 First schematic draft for MR 16 38

39 Final schematic of the MR16 39

40 Plots of the LM3409 BUCK BOOST 40 – CH4: Inductor current – CH2: Rectified input voltage – CH3: Input current CH3: LED current   

41 MR16 in design with electronic transformer 41

42 Vin: 12VAC Vout: 6.2V (2 series LEDs) Iout: 1A Pout: 6.2W Efficiency: 81% PF: 0.85 Dimmable with electronic low voltage dimmers/electronic transformers LED Agnostic Demo board, reference design, CAD design files available online (RD-188) LM3401 MR16 Reference Design 42

43 LM3401 MR16 Reference Design 43

44 TPS40211 Sepic Reference Design 44

45 LM3444 Boost Reference Design 45

46 LM3444 BUCK BOOST Reference Design 46

47 Controller/ Regulator/ Ref design

48 Why Not More Internal FET Boosts? 48 Boost and Buck- boost SEPIC and Flyback

49 49 LM3410 Boost and SEPIC LED Driver Key Features – Input voltage range of 2.75 to 5.5V – Output voltage range of 3 to 24V – Switch current up to 2.1A guaranteed over temperature – Low, 190mV feedback voltage – Option of 520 or 1600 kHz switching frequency – PWM Dim pin – 160mΩ switch resistance – Current Mode control with internal compensation Applications: Portable Illumination/Flashlight, Personal Navigation Device, Portable Measurement Equipment, Automotive Control/Entertainment Console, Portable DVD Player eMSOP-8SOT23-5LLP-6

50 TPS A, Boost High Brightness LED DriverFeaturesBenefits Operating Voltage Ranges: V IN : V V OUT : V IN to 38V Suitable for Use in Battery,12V, or 15V Systems 3A Peak Switch Current Can be Used to Drive High Current LEDs Adjustable Switching Frequency: 200k-2.2MHz with up to 93% Efficiency Allows Designed to be Optimized for Efficiency or Size Dimming: PWM or PWM-to-Analog Use PWM for No LED Color Shift. Use Analog to Eliminate Audible Noise from Pulsed Currents. UVLO, Over-Voltage, Current Limit and Thermal Shutdown Protects Against Abnormal and Fault Conditions Applications LED General Illumination LED Flashlights LED Backlighting TOOLS TPS61500EVM-369

51 TPS V to 52V Current Mode N-Ch ControllerFeaturesBenefits Supports Boost, Flyback and SEPIC Topologies Suitable for a Wide Variety of LED Lighting Applications 4.5 to 52V Input Voltage Range Can Drive Up To 14 Series HB LEDs Programmable Switching Frequency (35kHz to 1MHz) Flexible Filter Design Frequency Synchronization (with External Components) Can Operate with an External Clock 260mV Internal Voltage Reference Reduces Power Dissipation in Sense Resistor Integrated Low-Side Driver Reduces Component Count Programmable Over-Current Limit and Internal UVLO Protects Against Fault and Abnormal Operating Conditions Applications High Current LED Drivers (Street Lighting, High Bay) LED Based MR-16 Light Bulb Replacement LED Backlighting TOOLS TPS40211EVM-352

52 LM3429: Low Side N-MOSFET Controller for Constant Current LED Drivers 52

53 LM342x Controls the Floating Buck-Boost 53 V O controlled with respect to V IN Linear I F control Adjustable, precision threshold protection for LEDs that fail open-circuit

54 54 LM3423: Adds Fault Flag, Powergood Flag, and Input Disconnect – FLT pin is for error signaling or for input disconnect via PFET – TIMR sets the delay between when LED current is out of spec and when FLT flag goes logic HIGH – DPOL selects the polarity of the nDIM pin when PWM dimming – LRDY is a powergood pin for signaling a system microprocessor

55 LM3429: Features – V IN range: 4.5V to 75V: runs from 12V, 24V, 48V rails – Adjustable current sense voltage: 50 mV to 1.24V Allows linear (analog) dimming without changing the current sense resistor User can make tradeoff between average current accuracy and power dissipation in R SNS – High-side current sense: LED current returns through system GND – Input for PWM (digital) dimming – Precision output over-voltage protection Disables the regulator if an LED fails open circuit or the LED array is disconnected – Input under-voltage lockout – Switching frequency as high as 2 MHz – Thermally enhanced TSSOP-14 EP package Runs at high frequency and drives N-FETs with large gate charge 55

56 56 -DC Input Voltage 12V to 30V -SEPIC circuit bucks or boosts as needed I LED up to 1.5A 6 White and one yellow LED for CCT adjustment – All LEDs in series – Yellow LED has separate shunt NFET dimming – 250Hz PWM dimming LM26675 supplies 5V for Nuventix SynJet active cooling 1500 lumens at 50 lm/W Ref design: LM3429 PAR-38 Spotlight

57 57 PAR-38 Spot Light – Block Diagram

58 58 -DC Input Voltage 9V to 36V -Buck-boost circuit runs from 12VDC or 24VDC rails I LED up to 1A Powers 1 to 12 LEDs in series Accepts standard 0-10V linear dimming signals and adjusts LED current down to zero LM2842 supplies 5V for Nuventix SynJet active cooling Ref Design:LM3429 MR-16 retrofit with active cooling

59 LM3429 MR-16 Buck-boost Schematic

60 60 LM Channel Constant Current LED Driver with Integrated Boost Controller Product Overview: The LM3492 is a 2-channel linear current controller combined with a boost switching controller ideal for driving LED backlight panels. Key Features: V IN Range: 4.5V to 65V Drive two individual PWM dimmable LED strings up to 65V total 15W (around 230mA) 2 individually dimmable output channel No Loop compensation required > 15000:1 contrast ratio for 200Hz dimming frequency Near constant adjustable switching frequency up to 1 MHz LED driver Over-Power protection for short to supply scenario Dynamic Headroom Control Precision Enable pin Versatile COMM I/O pin for FAULT reporting (LED rail Power- Good, Short-FAULT, Open-FAULT and Over-Temperature Alert) and Digital Tune for switching frequency Individual LED string voltage diagnosis mode eTSSOP-28 package Applications: - Automotive Backlight - 6.5”-10” LCD display backlight applications up to 36 LEDs which requires ultra-high contrast ratio

61 61 LM3433 HB LED Driver LM3434 Common Anode Capable real High Brightness LED drivers

62 62 LM3433 Common Anode Capable HB LED Driver Key Features:COT Operating Input voltage Range: -9V to -14V w.r.t. LED Anode Control inputs are referenced to the LED anode Output current > 6A Greater than 30 kHz PWM Dimming frequency No output capacitor required Programmable up to 1 MHz switching frequency Low I Q, 1 mA typical Soft start “Intelligent” constant ON time allows for constant ripple current LLP-24 package Applications: LCD Backlighting, Projection Systems, Solid State Lighting, Automotive Lighting Output configuration allows the anode of the LED to be tied directly to the ground reference chassis for maximum heat sink efficiency

63 63 Synchronous Buck HB LED Driver with Common Anode Capability Directly mounted on projector chassis Negative Buck Approach – offers Negative output voltage capability – allows common anode LED modules – LED mounted directly to chassis for Maximum heat sink efficiency!!

64 LED Offline products Retrofit E27 T8 tube non retrofit High power bay (multi string)


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