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Chapter 10 Alkynes Organic Chemistry Second Edition David Klein Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Klein, Organic Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Alkynes Organic Chemistry Second Edition David Klein Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Klein, Organic Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Alkynes Organic Chemistry Second Edition David Klein Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

2 10.1 Alkynes Alkynes are molecules that incorporate a C  C triple bond Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

3 10.1 Alkynes Given the presence of two pi bonds and their associated electron density, alkynes are similar to alkenes in their ability to act as a nucleophile Converting pi bonds to sigma bonds generally makes a molecule more stable. WHY? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

4 10.1 Alkyne Uses Acetylene is the simplest alkyne It is used in blow torches and as a precursor for the synthesis of more complex alkynes More than 1000 different alkyne natural products have been isolated One example is histrionicotoxin, which can be isolated from South American frogs and is used on poison- tipped arrows by South American tribes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

5 An example of a synthetic alkyne is ethynylestradiol How do you think a C  C triple bond affects the molecules geometry? Its rigidity? Its intermolecular attractions? 10.1 Alkyne Uses Ethynylestradiol is the active ingredient in many birth control pills The presence of the triple bond increases the potency of the drug compared to the natural analog Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

6 10.2 Alkyne Nomenclature Alkynes are named using the same procedure we used in Chapter 4 to name alkanes with minor modifications 1.Identify the parent chain, which should include the C  C triple bond 2.Identify and Name the substituents 3.Assign a locant (and prefix if necessary) to each substituent giving the C  C triple bond the lowest number possible 4.List the numbered substituents before the parent name in alphabetical order. Ignore prefixes (except iso) when ordering alphabetically 5.The C  C triple bond locant is placed either just before the parent name or just before the -yne suffix Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

7 Alkynes are named using the same procedure we used in Chapter 4 to name alkanes with minor modifications 1.Identify the parent chain, which should include the C  C triple bond 2.Identify and name the substituents Alkyne Nomenclature Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

8 10.2 Alkyne Nomenclature Alkynes are named using the same procedure we used in Chapter 4 to name alkanes with minor modifications 3.Assign a locant (and prefix if necessary) to each substituent giving the C  C triple bond the lowest number possible – The locant is ONE number, NOT two. Although the triple bond bridges carbons 2 and 3, the locant is the lower of those two numbers Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

9 10.2 Alkyne Nomenclature Alkynes are named using the same procedure we used in Chapter 4 to name alkanes with minor modifications 4.List the numbered substituents before the parent name in alphabetical order. Ignore prefixes (except iso) when ordering alphabetically 5.The C  C triple bond locant is placed either just before the parent name or just before the -yne suffix Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

10 10.2 Alkyne Nomenclature In addition to the IUPAC naming system, chemists often use common names that are derived from the common parent name acetylene You should also be aware of the terminology below Practice with SkillBuilder 10.1 Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

11 10.2 Alkyne Nomenclature Name the molecule below Recall that when triple bonds are drawn their angles are 180° Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

12 10.3 Alkyne Acidity Recall that terminal alkynes have a lower pK a than other hydrocarbons Acetylene is 19 pK a units more acidic than ethylene, which is times stronger Does that mean that terminal alkynes are strong acids? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

13 10.3 Alkyne Acidity Because acetylene (pK a =25) is still much weaker than water (pK a =15.7), a strong base is needed to make it react, and water cannot be used as the solvent Recall from chapter 3 we used the acronym, ARIO, to rationalize differences in acidity strengths Use ARIO to explain why acetylene is a stronger acid than ethylene which is stronger than ethane Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

14 10.3 Alkyne Acidity Use ARIO to rationalize the equilibria below A bases conjugate acid pK a must be greater than 25 for it to be able to deprotonate a terminal alkyne Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

15 10.4 Preparation of Alkynes Like alkenes, alkynes can also be prepared by elimination Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

16 10.4 Preparation of Alkynes Such eliminations usually occur via an E2 mechanism Geminal dihalides can be used Vicinal dihalides can also be used E2 requires anti-periplanar geometry Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

17 10.4 Preparation of Alkynes Often, excess equivalents of NaNH 2 are used to shift the equilibrium toward the elimination products NH 2 1- is quite strong, so if a terminal alkyne is produced, it will be deprotonated That equilibrium will greatly favor products Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

18 10.4 Preparation of Alkynes A proton source is needed to produce the alkyne Predict the products in the example below Practice with conceptual checkpoint 10.7 Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

19 10.5 Reduction of Alkynes Like alkenes, alkynes can readily undergo hydrogenation Two equivalents of H 2 are consumed for each alkyne  alkane conversion The cis alkene is produced as an intermediate. WHY cis? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

20 10.5 Reduction w/ a Poisoned Catalyst A deactivated or poisoned catalyst can be used to selectively react with the alkyne Lindlar’s catalyst and P-2 (Ni 2 B complex) are common examples of a poisoned catalysts Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

21 10.5 Reduction w/ a Poisoned Catalyst Is this a syn or anti addition? Practice with conceptual checkpoint 10.9 Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

22 10.5 Dissolving Metal Reductions Reduction with H 2 gives syn addition Dissolving metal conditions can give Anti addition producing the trans alkene Ammonia has a boiling point = -33°C, so the temperature for these reactions must remain very low Why can’t water be used as the solvent? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

23 Mechanism: Step Dissolving Metal Reductions Note the single-barbed and double-barbed (fishhook) arrows. Why does Na metal so readily give up an electron? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

24 10.5 Dissolving Metal Reductions Mechanism: Step 1 Why is the first intermediate called a radical anion? The radical anion adopts a trans configuration to reduce repulsion Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

25 Mechanism: step 2 and 3 Draw the product for step 3 of the mechanism 10.5 Dissolving Metal Reductions Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

26 Mechanism: step 4 Do the pK a values for NH 3 and the alkene favor the proton transfer? 10.5 Dissolving Metal Reductions Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

27 Predict the product(s) for the following reaction Practice with conceptual checkpoint Dissolving Metal Reductions Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

28 Familiarize yourself with the reagents necessary to manipulate alkynes Practice with conceptual checkpoint Summary of Reductions Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

29 Like alkenes, alkynes also undergo hydrohalogenation Draw the final product for the reaction above Do the reactions above exhibit Markovnikov regioselectivity? 10.6 Hydrohalogenation of Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

30 You might expect alkynes to undergo hydrohalogenation by a mechanism similar to alkenes Yet, the mechanism above does not explain all observed phenomena – A slow reaction rate, 3 rd order overall rate law, like 1° carbocations, vinylic carbocations are especially unstable 10.6 Hydrohalogenation of Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e Vinylic carbocation

31 Kinetic studies on the hydrohalogenation of an alkyne suggest that the rate law is 1 st order with respect to the alkyne and 2 nd order with respect to HX What type of collision would result in such a rate law? Unimolecular, bimolecular, or termolecular? 10.6 Hydrohalogenation of Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

32 Reaction rate is generally slow for termolecular collisions. WHY? Considering the polarizability of the alkyne, does the mechanism explain the regioselectivity? May involve multiple competing mechanisms 10.6 Hydrohalogenation of Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

33 Peroxides can be used in the hydrohalogenation of alkynes to promote anti-Markovnikov addition just like with alkenes Which product is E and which is Z? The process proceeds through a free radical mechanism that we will discuss in detail in Chapter 11 Practice with conceptual checkpoint Hydrohalogenation of Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

34 Like alkenes, alkynes can also undergo acid catalyzed Markovnikov hydration The process is generally catalyzed with HgSO 4 to compensate for the slow reaction rate that results from the formation of vinylic carbocation 10.7 Hydration of Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

35 HgSO 4 catalyzed hydration involves the mecury (II) ion interacting with the alkyne Can you imagine what that interaction might look like and how it will increase the rate of reaction for the process? Why is the intermediate called an enol? 10.7 Hydration of Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

36 The enol/ketone tautomerization generally cannot be prevented and favors the ketone greatly Tautomers are constitutional isomers that rapidly interconvert. How is that different from resonance? Practice with SkillBuilder Hydration of Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

37 Hydroboration-oxidation for alkynes proceeds through the same mechanism as for alkenes giving the anti- Markovnikov product It also produces an enol that will quickly tautomerize In this case, the tautomerization is catalyzed by the base (OH - ) rather than by an acid 10.7 Hydroboration-Oxidation Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

38 In general, we can conclude that a C=O double bond is more stable than a C=C double bond. WHY? 10.7 Hydroboration-Oxidation Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

39 After the –BH 2 and –H groups have been added across the C=C double bond, in some cases, an undesired second addition can take place To block out the second unit of BH 3 from reacting with the intermediate, bulky borane reagents are often used 10.7 Hydroboration-Oxidation Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

40 Some bulky borane reagents are shown below Practice with conceptual checkpoint Hydroboration-Oxidation Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

41 Predict products for the following reaction Draw the alkyne reactant and reagents that could be used to synthesize the following molecule 10.7 Hydroboration-Oxidation Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

42 Markovnikov hydration leads to a ketone Anti-Markovnikov hydration leads to an aldehyde Practice with SkillBuilder Hydration Regioselectivity Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

43 Alkynes can also undergo halogenation Two equivalents of halogen can be added You might expect the mechanism to be similar to the halogenation of alkenes, yet stereochemical evidence suggests otherwise – see next slide 10.8 Alkyne Halogenation Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

44 When one equivalent of halogen is added to an alkyne, both anti and syn addition is observed The halogenation of an alkene undergoes anti addition ONLY The mechanism for alkyne halogenation is not fully elucidated 10.8 Alkyne Halogenation Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

45 When alkynes react under ozonolysis conditions, the pi system is completely broken The molecule is cleaved, and the alkyne carbons are fully oxidized Practice with conceptual checkpoint Alkyne Ozonolysis Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

46 Predict the product(s) for the following reaction 10.9 Alkyne Ozonolysis Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

47 As acids, terminal alkynes are quite weak Yet, with a strong enough base, a terminal alkyne can be deprotonated and converted into a good nucleophile What has a higher pK a, NH 3 or R-C  C-H? WHY? Alkylation of Terminal Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

48 The alkynide ion can attack a methyl or 1° alkyl halide electrophile Such reactions can be used to develop molecular complexity Alkynide ions usually act as bases with 2° or 3° alkyl halides to cause elimination rather than substitution Alkylation of Terminal Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

49 Acetylene can be used to perform a double alkylation Why will the reaction be unsuccessful if the NaNH 2 and Et-Br are added together? Complex target molecules can be made by building a carbon skeleton and converting functional groups Practice with SkillBuilder Alkylation of Terminal Alkynes Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

50 Recall the methods for increasing the saturation of alkenes and alkynes But, what if you want to reverse the process or decrease saturation? See next slide Synthetic Stategies Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

51 Halogenation of an alkene followed by two dehydrohalogenation reactions can decrease saturation We will have to wait until chapter 11 to see how to convert an alkane into an alkene, but here is a preview What conditions would you use in step B? Synthetic Stategies Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

52 In the alkene to alkyne conversion above, why is water needed in part 3) of that reaction? Practice with SkillBuilder Synthetic Stategies Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

53 Give necessary reaction conditions for the multi-step conversions below Synthetic Stategies Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

54 Additional Practice Problems Name the molecule Draw the structure of 2,2-dimethyl-6-chloro-3-heptyne Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

55 Additional Practice Problems Give 2 sets of reagents that could be used to synthesize 1-pentyne through elimination reactions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

56 Additional Practice Problems Give a set of reagents that could be used to synthesize cis-2-pentene from an addition reaction. Give a set of reagents that could be used to synthesize trans-2-pentene from an addition reaction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

57 Additional Practice Problems Give a set of reagents that could be used to synthesize a ketone from an addition reaction. Give a set of reagents that could be used to synthesize an aldehyde from an addition reaction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e

58 Additional Practice Problems Determine necessary reagents to complete the synthesis below. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Klein, Organic Chemistry 2e


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