Presentation on theme: "Review. Consider atoms of the following elements. Assume that the atoms are in the ground state. S Ca Ga Sb Br The atom that contains exactly two unpaired."— Presentation transcript:
Consider atoms of the following elements. Assume that the atoms are in the ground state. S Ca Ga Sb Br The atom that contains exactly two unpaired electrons? The atom that contains only one electron in the highest occupied energy sublevel?
i.1 s 2 2s 2 2p 5 3s 2 3p 5 ii. 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 iii. 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 2d 10 3s 2 3p 6 iv. 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 5 v. 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 3 4s 2 An impossible electronic configuration The ground-state configuration for the atoms of a transition element The ground-state configuration of a negative ion of a halogen The ground-state configuration of a common ion of an alkaline earth element
i. 1 s ___2s ↑ ii. 1 s ↓↑ 2s ↓↑ iii. 1 s ↓↑ 2s ↓↑ 2p ↑ ↑ iv. 1 s ↓↑ 2s ↓↑ 2p ↓↑ ↓↑ ↓↑ v. [Ar] 4 s ↓↑ 3d ↓↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Represents an atom that is chemically unreactive Represents an atom in an excited state Represents an atom that has four valence electrons
F S Mg Ar Mn Forms monatomic ions with 2¯ charge in solutions Forms a compound having the formula KXO 4 Forms oxides that are common air pollutants and that yield acidic solution in water
OLaRbMgN What is the most electronegative element of the above? Which element exhibits the greatest number of different oxidation states? Which of the elements above has the smallest ionic radius for its most commonly found ion?
Activation energyFree energy Ionization energy Kinetic energy Lattice energy The energy required to convert a ground-state atom in the gas phase to a gaseous positive ion The energy change that occurs in the conversion of an ionic solid to widely separated gaseous ions
Which of the following represents a pair of isotopes? Atomic Atomic Number Mass Number I II I. 6 7 II I II I II I II.16 20
Gaseous atoms of which of the elements above are paramagnetic?
What is one possible set of four quantum numbers for one of the outermost electrons in a strontium atom in the ground state
What conclusion can be drawn from J. J. Thomson's cathode ray experiments? What is a correct interpretation of the results of Rutherford's experiments in which gold atoms were bombarded with alpha particles?
Describe three species of atoms/ions that are isoelectronic What properties generally decreases across the periodic table from sodium to chlorine?
The effective nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electron of Na is different than the effective nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electron of Ne. This difference best accounts for…