Presentation on theme: "Molecules and Compounds Chapter 19. What we will Learn Relate chemical behavior of an element, including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table."— Presentation transcript:
What we will Learn Relate chemical behavior of an element, including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table Explain how elements form chemical bonds and identify the role of electrons in bonding Predict chemical formulas of compounds made up of two different elements Write chemical formulas for compounds made up of many different elements Calculate the formula mass of a compound and compare different compounds based on their formula masses
The Octet Rule When an atom has eight valence electrons, it is said to have an octet of electrons. Atoms form chemical bonds with other atoms by either sharing electrons, or transferring them in order to complete their octet and move to a lower energy state. This is known as the octet rule.
Predicting Atomic Behavior Looses 1 electron to satisfy Octet Rule Octet Rule Satisfied Looses 1 electron to satisfy Octet Rule
Types of Bonds Chemical Bonds fall into two categories, depending on whether the valence electrons are transferred or shared Ionic Bonds: When electron(s) are transferred from one atom to the other. Covalent Bonds: When electron(s) are shared between atoms.
Ionic Bonds Atoms that either gain or lose an electron become ions. Ions may have either positive or negative electric charge. The positive and negative ions are attracted to each other, creating the bond. Ionic bonds tend to form between more than one pair of atoms at a time. The bond between sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) in sodium chloride (salt) is a good example of an ionic bond.
Ionic Bonds If you put an alkali (Na) with a halogen (Cl), you get an ionic bond because one atom strongly wants to lose an electron and the other strongly wants to gain one. Alkali Metals Halogens
Ionic Bonds When sodium, with its +1 charge, comes into contact with chlorine, with its -1 charge, they become electrically neutral as long as they are together. This is because +1 and -1 cancel each other out. This also explains why sodium and chlorine combine in a 1:1 ratio to make sodium chloride
IONIC BONDING PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS Form between a metal and a nonmetal Brittle/crystalline High melting/boiling points Dissolve (ions come apart) in water
NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS The metal (positive ion) goes first in the formula The nonmetal (negative ion) goes last in the formula The name of the metal stays the same, and the name of the nonmetal is changed so it ends in –ide. For example: Oxygen becomes Oxide
NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS NaCl HF MgI 2 KBr Sodium Chloride Hydrogen Fluoride Magnesium Iodide Potassium Bromide This is called Binary Nomenclature
Oxidation Numbers A sodium atom always ionizes to become Na+ (a charge of +1) when it combines with other atoms to make a compound. Therefore, we say that sodium has an oxidation number of 1+. An oxidation number indicates how many electrons are lost, gained, or shared when bonding occurs.
Writing a Chemical Formula Using Oxidation Numbers 1.Find the oxidation numbers of each element in the compound 2. Determine the ratios of each element and then write the chemical formula
Oxidation Numbers Some elements have more than one oxidation number. In this case, roman numerals are used to distinguish the oxidation number. ElementOxidation Number Copper (I)1+ Copper (II)2+ Iron (II)2+ Iron (III)3+ Chromium (II)2+ Chromium (III)3+ Chromium (VI)6+ Lead (II)2+ Lead (IV)4+
Polyatomic Ions NameFormulaOxidation # AmmoniumNH 4 + 1+ AcetateC2H3O2-C2H3O2- 1- HydroxideOH - 1- PhosphatePO 4 3- 3- NitrateNO 3 - 1- HydroniumH3O+H3O+ 1+ SulfateSO 4 2- 2- Polyatomic Ions: contains more than one type of atom (poly means many)
Writing Chemical formulas with polyatomic Ions 1. Find the formula and charge of the positive Ion 2. Find the formula and charge of the negative ion (for poly atomic ions you will not have to memorize them they will be given) 3. Determine how many of each ion are needed so the charges are equal to zero and write the chemical formula (Hint: Least common multiple) Example: Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3
Writing Chemical formulas with polyatomic Ions Example: Write the formula for Aluminum Sulfate 1. Find Aluminum’s Oxidation Number (it is 3+) 2. Sulfate’s oxidation number will be given (it is 2-) Al 3+ SO 4 2- 3. How many of each do we need to satisfy the charges? The common denominator between 3 and 2 is 6. 6/3 = 2 Aluminums 6/2 = 3 Sulfates Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3
Covalent Bonds In a covalent bond the electrons are shared between atoms. An important difference between covalent and ionic bonds is that covalent bonds act only between the atoms in a single molecule, while ionic bonds act between all adjacent atoms
Covalent Bonds Elements that have two to six valence electrons tend to form covalent bonds with each other since the tendency to take or receive electrons is more matched. Covalent bonds can form between two different types of atoms, or between two or more atoms of the same type. The gases nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) are a few examples. We call these covalently bonded atoms of the same type diatomic molecules.
This is how you DRAW a SINGLE COVALENT BOND A single line means each atom shared one electron each to get full. Covalent Bonds
Some atoms need more than one electron to become stable. What type of element is oxygen? What kind of bond will two oxygen atoms make? Covalent Bonds
–D–Draw the Electron Dot Diagram for Oxygen. –H–How many electrons does each oxygen need to become stable? –H–How many TOTAL electrons are shared? –F–FOUR
How would you draw this? This is a DOUBLE COVALENT BOND. 2 pairs of electrons are shared OO
–W–What kind of bond would 2 nitrogen atoms form? –C–COVALENT –H–How many electrons does each atom need? –T–Three –H–How many total electrons are shared? –S–Six, 3 pairs of electrons
–H–How would you draw this? –T–This is a TRIPLE COVALENT BOND 3 pairs shared
–S–Sometimes, one atom is not enough to fill all the “empty” spots another atom has. –H–How many electrons does Carbon need to be stable? –H–How many electrons does Hydrogen need to be stable?
How do you write the Chemical Formula for a MOLECULE? H2H2 O2O2 F2F2 N2N2 CH 4
Naming Covalent Molecules –The element with the lowest ionization energy goes first (farthest from Fluorine). –Each element gets a prefix to identify how many there are. –Exception: If there is only one of the first element, no prefix is used. –The second element changes so that it ends with –ide. Covalent Bonds
Molecular Weight Does a molecule of water (H 2 O) have the same mass as a group of atoms (also called a formula unit) that make up the ionic compound calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 )?
Carbon atoms are used as a standard for determining the atomic mass units for the other elements on the periodic table. One carbon atom is equivalent to 12.01 atomic mass units. Molecular Weight
A chemical Formula does 3 things for us: 1. Tells us the types of atoms in the compound 2. Lets you know if polyatomic ions are present 3. Allows you to calculate the Molecular Weight (MW) or Formula Mass Molecular Weight
Lets go back to our first example: Water vs Calcium Carbonate. Water has a chemical formula of H 2 O Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1.01 amu Oxygen has an atomic mass of 16.00 amu So one molecule of water has: 2(1.01 amu) + 1(16.00 amu) = 18.02 amu Molecular Weight
Lets go back to our first example: Water vs Calcium Carbonate. Calcium Carbonate has a chemical Formula Of CaCO 3 Calcium has an atomic mass of 40.08 amu Oxygen has an atomic mass of 16.00 amu So one molecule of Calcium Carbonate has: 1(40.08 amu) + 1(12.01 amu) + 3(16.00 amu) = 100.09 amu Carbon has an atomic mass of 12.01 amu Molecular Weight
The molecular weight comparison: 18.02 amu for Water vs. 100.09 amu for Calcium Carbonate Molecular Weight
Rules for finding Molecular Weight: 1. Write the chemical formula for the compound. 2. List the atoms, number of each atom, and the atomic mass of each atom 3. Add up the values for each type of atom Molecular Weight
Isomers Isomers: Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.
Isomers Example: C 3 H 6 O How many ways can we bond these atoms? (hint there are 7 ways minimum)