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 Moissan, a French chemist isolated iodine by the electrolysis of HI and molten potassium hydrogen fluoride  Gore prepared it by heating potassium fluoroplumbate.

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Presentation on theme: " Moissan, a French chemist isolated iodine by the electrolysis of HI and molten potassium hydrogen fluoride  Gore prepared it by heating potassium fluoroplumbate."— Presentation transcript:


2  Moissan, a French chemist isolated iodine by the electrolysis of HI and molten potassium hydrogen fluoride  Gore prepared it by heating potassium fluoroplumbate  It has been used as a flux, where the name fluorine from Latin “fluo” which means “to flow” was taken  The 17th plentiful element on earth

3  The bones and enamel of teeth of mammals contain small amounts of calcium fluride  A pale yellow gas having an odor that of the mixture of ozone and chlorine  It is the most active element known  Fluorine may be placed in glass or quartz vessels for short periods

4 Pharmacologic Action: 1. Gaseous fluorine is irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membrane 2. The fluoride ion is germicidal, prevents growth of bacteria, molds and preserves blood specimen Uses: 1. Freon 12, CF 2 Cl 2 - as refrigerant 2. Teflon, CF 2 CF 2 – containers for HI

5 3. Cryolite, Na 2 AlF 6 - insecticide 4. DFT, di-isopropyl fluorophosphate – for the reduction of intraocular tension in glaucoma 5. Sodium fluorosilicate – antimoth preparation 6. Sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate – prevent dental caries

6  The name was from the Greek word chloros meaning ”greenish yellow”  Scheele named it ”depflogisticated muriatic acid”  Berthollet named it “oxygenized muriatic acid”  Davy gave the nams Chlorine  It is never found in nature but in combination with the alkali metals

7  The blood contains about 0.25% Cl -1  Sea water is about 2.07% combined chlorine  Volcanic gases contain HCl  It is greenish-yellow, unpleasant- suffocating odor and astringent taste  Most active of the halogens with HCs to form chlorinated compound

8  Chlorine Water(Aqua Clori) – a sat sol’n of chlorine in distilled water is official in USP, has yellow color and diappears on standing  The oxidizing and bleaching properties are due to the oxygen evolved in the breakdown of HClO  Chlorine water should be kept in a dark place or in light-resistant jars

9 Pharmacologic Action: 1. Irritant to the mucous membranes and respiratory tract 2. Overexposure to the gas causes restlessness, sneezing and excessive salivation 3. Death occurs by asphyxiation when symptoms increase accompanied by vomiting

10 4. Liquid Cl 2 will cause blistering of skin. Persons with asthma or chronic bronchitis are bothered by Cl 2 Uses: 1. Cl 2 as the pure element has little use in medicine 2. To purify drinking water 3. Prevent putrefaction and remove the odor or decay

11 4. Manufac explosives, insecticides, herbicides, organic chemicals and as refrigerants Chlorine Dioxide (ClO 2 ) 1. As bactericide but not economical to sterilize drinking water 2. For bleaching flour, fats, oil, paper, textile 3. Destroy unpleasant taste and odor

12  Balard discovered and named bromine from the Greek word meaning “a stench” because of its pungent smell  Occurs in combination with various metals in sea water, Dead sea, carnallite deposits and brine  It is a dark reddish- brown mobile liquid almost black

13  Freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide and acetic acid  Solubility in water may be incresed by the use of KBr  Stored in glass vessels or glass lined metal drums  A yellow color will produce with starch

14 Pharmacologic action 1. Irritant poison and a powerful escharotic, rarely used in med 2. Liquid bromine quickly attacks the skin/tissues produce burns slow to heal In handling bromine, it is always advisable to have ammonia water to stop its action

15  Relief from inhaled bromine is by breathing ammonia vapors then O 2y  Br 2 is cooling on the skin, (just all volatile liquids) follwed by brown stain and burn  Br 2 is used in making bromides for med purposes, analytical chemistry, photography, prep of organic dyes

16  Curtois, a salt manufacturer in Paris, accidentally discovered the element from burnt seaweeds which gave violet fumes  Gay-Lussac named the subs Iode  Curtois received a prize from the Royal Society for having improved the art of healing for the value of Iodine in treating goiter

17  The ashes obtained from burning of sea weeds is known as kelp in Scotland, in Norway as varec, barilla in Spain  Occurs in thyroid gland of animals  Is a grayish-black solid, metallic luster, a penetrating odor  One of the heaviest gases

18 Pharmacologic action: 1. I 2 is converted to inorganic iodide in the GIT 2. Dr. Jean Coindet successfully used I 2 as cure for goiter 3. Acts by oxidizing and/or iodizing the protoplasm of the cell - use as germicide, fungicide, amebicide, virucide

19  In Pharmacy, I 2 preparations are used externally as antiseptic or internally as a source of iodine Important Compounds: 1. Iodine USP - used in medicine as counterirritant and disinfectant 2. Lugol’s sol’n (Strong Iodine Sol’n) source of I 2 for internal use

20  It is the only official preparation containing elemental iodine  It is marketed under the ff prep: a. Iodine Tincture b. Iodine Ampuls c. Iodine Ointment d. Iodine solution e. Phenolated Iodine Solution (Boulton’s Solution)

21 f. Strong Iodine Tincture –has antifungal properties  I 2 sol’n and I 2 tinc employ the same conc of active ingredients but differ in the solvent medium  I 2 sol’n is less irritating since it lacks alcohol but dries very slowly  I 2 tinc is much less apt to freeze

22 Official compound  Povidove-Iodine- occurs as a yellowish brown amorphous powder - it is soluble in water and alcohol but insoluble CHCl 3, CCl 4 ether and alcohol  Betadine, Isodine, Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine complex

23  Advantages over elemental iodine: a. Reduced irritation to tissues b. Reduced oral toxicity c. Does not stain the skin or clothing d. Lower incidence if idiosyncracy Availlable prep accg to conc: a. Intraviginal applications- 1% douche or 0.1% gel

24 b.Topical preparations 0.5% aerosol spray,1.0% ointment, 0.75% shampoo, 0.75 % skin cleanser, 1.0% sol’n and 0.75% scrub  Non-official preparation: 1. Diglycocoll Hydroiodide-Iodine (Bursoline)

25  Used to disinfect drinking water - I 2 is better than chlorine for purifying drinking water because it is not affected nitrogen contg cpmds 2. Undecoylium Chloride Iodide (Virac) – useful in treating surface infections as well as pre and post operative disinfection

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