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F UNCTIONAL G ROUPS Organic Reactions. C H H H ClH HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION.

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Presentation on theme: "F UNCTIONAL G ROUPS Organic Reactions. C H H H ClH HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 F UNCTIONAL G ROUPS Organic Reactions

2 C H H H ClH HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

3 Chloromethane CH 3 ClCH 4 Cl 2 CH (4-1) Cl HCl ++→ C H HH H Cl C H H H H ++→ HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION Methane Chlorine Molecule Hydrochloric Acid + + →

4 C H H H Cl-HCl HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION Cl

5 CH (4-2) Cl Dichloro methane CH 2 Cl 2 CH 4 2Cl 2 2HCl ++→ C H HH H 2ClCl C H H 2HCl ++→ HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION Methane 2 Chlorine Molecule 2 Hydrochloric Acid + + →

6 ‐ For every halogen substitution you need: ‐ Only 1 Hydrocarbon Molecule for all the substitutions as long as it has enough Hydrogens ‐ 1 Halogen Molecule with 2 atoms of the same halogen HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

7 ‐ For every halogen substitution you produce: ‐ Only 1 Halocarbon Molecule with all the substitutions. ‐ 1 Hydrogen atom less and 1 Halogen atom more ‐ 1 Hydracid Molecule of that Halogen HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

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9 C H H Cl HALOGEN ADDITION REACTION C H H

10 Dichloroethane C 2 H 4 Cl 2 C2H4C2H4 Cl 2 +→ Cl + → Ethene Chlorine Molecule + → HALOGEN ADDITION REACTION C H H C H H C H H C H H Cl

11 ‐ For every halogen addition you need: ‐ Only 1 Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Molecule for all the additions as long as it has enough Double or Triple bonds ‐ 1 Halogen Molecule with 2 atoms of the same halogen HALOGEN ADDITION REACTION

12 ‐ For every halogen addition you produce: ‐ Only 1 Halocarbon Molecule with all the additions. ‐ 2 Halogen atom more HALOGEN ADDITION REACTION

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14 3- methyl Name the Biggest Hydrocar bon Chain Name the Alkyl Branches Name the Halogen Branches Fluorine= Fluoro Chlorine= Chloro Bromine= Bromo Iodine= Iodo Select and Number the Biggest Hydrocar bon Chain 4 Carbons N AMING H ALOCARBONS CH 3 C C Cl Br 4 Carbons5 Carbons Pentan e = bromo 2,3- dichlor o Arrange the Branches in Alphabet ical Order PERFEC T!

15 ‐ An alcohol is an organic compound in which a hydroxyl group replaces a hydrogen atom of a hydrocarbon. ‐ General Formula R-OH ‐ Name it the same as alkanes but change the ending -e for –ol and add the position of the OH. ‐ If there are more than one OH, don’t eliminate the -e, put their positions, and put a prefix (d,tri,tetra, etc.) ALCOHOLS

16 ‐ An amine is an organic compoud that contain nitrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms in rings. ‐ General Formula R-NH 2 ‐ Name it the same as alcohols but change the ending -ol for –amine and the hydrocarbon part is named like a branch (except for more than one NH2). AMINES

17 ‐ An ether is an organic compound containing an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms. ‐ General Formula R-O-R’ ‐ Name it by naming both hydrocarbon chains as branches and add the ending ether ETHERS


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