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Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Conference on Substitution Hamburg, 13-14 June 2002 Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Conference on Substitution Hamburg, 13-14 June 2002 Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Conference on Substitution Hamburg, June 2002 Introduction by: J. Lohse, Ökopol Working Group 3 Printed Circuit Boards

2 Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Some Characteristics of Printed Circuit Boards: Integral part of all electronic devices (IT, consumer goods, automotive etc.). High-volume market, significant growth rates. The dominating material is FR4 (glass-fibre reinforced epoxide). UL-94 norm commonly applied defines classes V0, V1 related to resistance to flammability. Substances most commonly applied to achieve flame resistance are brominated organic chemicals.

3 Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Concerns about brominated flame retardants (BFR) Toxic and suspected CMR properties of many BFR substances Low biodegradability and/or formation of toxic metabolites Diffuse losses from products in use Ubiquitous occurrence in urban environment and remote areas Found in human blood (exposed workers) Found in human breast-milk (general population) PXDD/F formation upon accidental fire PXDD/F formation upon thermal stress during recycling

4 Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Initiatives at the political level Voluntary phase-out of some BFR by German chemical industry (after their behaviour as dioxin precursors was discovered) Draft ROHS Directive requires substitution of PBB / PBDE EU Risk Assessment on TBBA (ongoing) Draft WEEE Directive requires dismantling of BFR-components Legislative initiatives (e.g. in Germany and Denmark) Eco-labelling criteria (EU flower, national & private labels) restrict the use of some or even all BFR. Pressure from environmental NGOs.

5 Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Initiatives at enterprise level (individual companies) Circuit board manufacturer: disposal problem for production waste initiated search for substitutes E&E manufacturer: early internal ban of PBB and PBDE - working towards total BFR phase-out to fulfill eco-label criteria Car manufacturer: early internal ban of PBB and PBDE - working towards halogen-free materials in general where possible Base-material supplier: offers halogen-free FR4 material and seeks first mover advantage Market pressure from several Asian manufacturers [parallel efforts in Asia and US to phase out Pb solder]

6 Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Substitution strategies Use of TBBA instead of PBB / PBDE polymerized TBBA (reduces some but does not avoid all risks) Phosphorus-based FR (shielding effect by solid-base reaction) Mineral-based FR (ATH and similar - dilution & cooling effect) Change of base material (e.g. foams, polysiloxane etc.) Geometric separation of high and low voltage components Reduce operating voltage. Substance --> material --> product level

7 Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Use of P-based FR instead of TBBA - arguments and questions: Economics Additional cost of material ?! Investments in process necessary ? Dependance on single supplier ?! Technical functionality Functional equivalence of substitute ? (safety standards, market requirements) Communication / awareness Necessity to involve all actors in the chain ! Ecotox-profile as strong driver at company level ?? Risk Assessment Sufficient knowledge about ecotox-profile of substitutes ? Regulative frame Upcoming legislation ! Existing standards in favour of traditional solutions ?! Timing of innovation depends on parallel developments (e.g. Pb-free) !

8 Kooperationsstelle Hamburg Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes Questions to the Working Group:  Is it a case for substitution - YES or NO ?  If YES: what is needed to promote substitution ? (present barriers, supportive actions, legal or market instruments etc.)  If controversial: what would be the right procedure to decide ? (criteria; stakeholders to be involved;...)  [if all say NO: why then are BFR high on the political agenda ?]


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