We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byCeleste Riden
Modified about 1 year ago
PowerPoint ® Lecture prepared by Gary A. Beluzo A REDUCTION IN ATMOSPHERIC OZONE Let the Sunshine In 14
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES Explain why temperature rises or falls with altitude in different layers of the atmosphere. Compare and contrast three hypotheses for the depletion of stratospheric ozone and how the scientific method was used to choose among them. Compare and contrast the depletion of stratospheric ozone above the northern and southern poles. Describe how a reduction in stratospheric ozone affects organisms that live in either marine or terrestrial ecosystems. Describe the role of scientific information in the process that culminated in agreements to end the production of CFCs After reading this chapter, students will be able to
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company An Environmental Success Story Spring 1986 scientists announced the atmosphere above South Pole had 40% less ozone (O3) But in 1974, Rowland and Molina hypothesized that CFCs could destroy the ozone layer Environmentalists argued that life could be wiped out Industry responded that CFCs were critical to modern life Need for cooperation among consumers, industry, government
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company The Atmosphere The atmosphere provides many environmental services Nitrogen (N 2 ) 78% Oxygen (O 2 ) 21% Trace Gases (mostly Ar) 1% CO2 is about 0.038% or 380 ppm and now increasing 2.2 ppm/year CO2 has increased 20% since 1959 whereas oxygen has varied less than 0.03% over the last 50 years
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere (extends up to altitude of 8 km in polar and 15 km in tropics Lapse rate (-6.5º C/km) Tropopause keeps water vapor in the troposphere Stratosphere (20-50 km) Mesosphere (50-100 km) Thermosphere Figure 14.1
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Stratospheric Ozone 90% of ozone (O 3 ) is in the stratosphere Solar energy powers the formation of ozone The amount of single atom oxygen (O) determines rate at which ozone is formed. O 2 + hv O + O (14.1) O + O 2 O 3 (14.2) O 3 + hv O + O 2 (14.3)
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ozone Formation
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Distribution of Ozone Ozone is measured in dobson units (DU) 100 DU would be a “pile” 1mm thick at sea level and 0 degrees C. There are about 300 DU of ozone, which is equivalent to a pile of molecules 3 mm thick. Most ozone is formed near the equator Distributed throughout stratosphere by global air circulation The result is greatest concentration at mid latitudes, especially in northern hemisphere
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Reduction in Stratospheric Ozone Satellites since 1979 have measured a annual decline of about 0.41 % in the entire atmosphere
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Antarctic October Decline
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company An Expanded Area of Decline Figure 14.6
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company The Halogen Depletion Hypothesis 1974 paper in Nature in which Rowland and Molina hypothesized that ozone could be reduced by chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) CFCl 3 + hv Cl + CFCl2 (14.4) Cl + O 3 ClO + O 2 (14.5) O + ClO Cl + O 2 (14.6) O + O 3 O 2 + O 2 (14.7)
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company
The “Odd Nitrogen” Hypothesis Variation in solar activity “Odd Nitrogen” N 2 O 5, NO 3, etc Trapped by polar vortex NO and NO2 destroy ozone
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company “Dynamic Uplift” Hypothesis Changes in atmospheric circulation after 1979 Upward movements of air dilutes ozone
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Which is Correct? Scientists tested each hypothesis Fly plane into and out of reduced ozone area No increased levels of “Odd Nitrogen” Nitrous oxide levels low Relationship between ozone and ClO was striking Figure 14.10
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Effects of Less Stratospheric O 3
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Global Decline in Amphibians
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Policies to Restore Ozone Layer Political Response is Environmental Success If halogen depletion correct: CFCs had to be banned If halogen depletion was false: banning CFCs would impair the global economy Economic and environmental threat created deadlock NASA and WMO published “blue books” in 1986 Montreal Protocol in 1987 50% reduction turned out to be ideal
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Future Levels of Chlorine/Bromine Figure 14.14
Copyright © 2007 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Declining Concentrations
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th Lutgens Tarbuck Lectures by: Heather Gallacher, Cleveland.
Atmospheric Basics Section 11.1 Section Atmospheric Composition Energy is transferred throughout Earth’s atmosphere Energy is transferred throughout.
Atmosphere and Climate Chapter 7. THE ATMOSPHERE.
Chapter 4 Section 3 Air Movement. Atmospheric Pressure and Winds What is wind? Wind is moving air. Created by differences in air pressure Because air.
The Dynamic EarthSection 2 Objective #9 Describe the layers of the Earth’s atmosphere.
Atmospheric and Climate Change Chapter Climate and Climate Change Objectives 1.Explain the difference between weather and climate. 2.Identify.
Atmosphere. What makes up our atmosphere? Nitrogen Oxygen Argon.
7. Ozone hole 1)Structure of the ozone layer 2) Chemistry of the natural ozone layer 3)Recent changes to the ozone layer 4)Effects of Chlorine on global.
Jump from Space Atmospheric pressure (millibars) 120 Temperature , Thermosphere Mesopause Mesosphere 45.
Atmosphere and Climate ChangeSection 2 Objectives Explain how the ozone layer shields Earth from much of the sun’s harmful radiation. Explain how chlorofluorocarbons.
1 Weather and Climate Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI) Ozone depletion: Misconceptions San Jose State University, January 24, 2004
The atmosphere is the Key symbol of global Interdependence.
Layers of the Atmosphere Science Objectives identify and describe the principal characteristics of layers found in the atmosphere identify the distribution.
air * All gases that surround the Earth, called air * Altitude extends to ~80 km above the surface * Most abundant elements: nitrogen, oxygen, argon *
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Chapter 13 Atmosphere and Climate Change 13.2 The Ozone Shield.
ATMOSPHERE. Composition of the Atmosphere The atmosphere is comprised of a variety of gases: Major Constituents (99%): Nitrogen (N): 78% Oxygen (O 2 ):
Chapter 3 Introduction to the Atmosphere. Supplies oxygen for humans & animals Supplies carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for plants Helps maintain water supply.
Chapter 14 By: Vanessa LaTorre. Atmosphere - thin envelope/layer of gas around Earth Gases stretch 375 miles above sea level Composed of gases known.
GLOBAL CLIMATES & BIOMES APES CH. 4. Weather vs Climate Weather: Climate : The state of the atmosphere at this moment. Scales of seconds to days. Can.
Composition of the Atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor 0-4% by volumn Variable Components of the atmosphere.
The Ozone Story Formation of the ozone layer Why We Care Ozone Threats: CFCs Early warnings Building a scientific consensus “Nature” of Action Lessons.
Objectives Explain how the ozone layer shields the Earth from much of the sun’s harmful radiation. Explain how chlorofluorocarbons damage the ozone layer.
Chapter 6 The Atmosphere Preview Section 1 Characteristics of the AtmosphereCharacteristics of the Atmosphere Section 2 Atmospheric HeatingAtmospheric.
OBJECTIVES: a. describe the layers of the atmosphere. b. differentiate the layers of the atmosphere based on variation of temperature. c. explain the significance.
The Atmosphere. The atmosphere –Acts as a screen against harmful radiation –Retains heat allowing for life on Earth –Includes O 2 necessary for cellular.
The Earth’s Atmosphere. Atmosphere Thin layer of air that forms a protective covering around the Earth.
Atmosphere and Climate ChangeSection 2 Bellringer.
1.Air is empty space. 2.Earth’s atmosphere is important to living organisms. 3. Uneven heating in different parts of the atmosphere causes global wind.
The atmosphere surrounds Earth and protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner.
Environmental Science Chapter 7 Notes #1. Atmosphere Thin Layer of gases that surrounds the Earth Extends from the surface to 100’s of km’s above “Air”
The Atmosphere Chapter Lesson Objectives Identify the major components of Earth’s atmosphere Explain how air pressure changes with altitude Explain.
1 Ozone depletion: Misconceptions Misconceptions Meteorology 10 De Anza College.
Earth’s Atmosphere intro intro. Atmospheric Composition Gas% Nitrogen78% Oxygen21% Argon0.9% Carbon Dioxide0.04% Other Gases, Dust and Water Vapor 0.06%
Erosion of Ozone Layer. Erosion of Ozone layer Position of ozone layer : Ozone layer is mainly locate at height 20:40Km above sea level in the lower.
Atmosphere and Climate ChangeSection 2 Section 2: The Ozone Shield Preview Bellringer Objectives The Ozone Shield Chemicals That Cause Ozone Depletion.
The Earth’s Atmosphere. Temperature Temperature is a measure of the average speed of the molecules, faster motion = higher temperature. Temperature is.
BY: Alexis A- Sweizy Carr. Thermosphere- The uppermost atmospheric layer. Mesosphere- The coldest layer of the atmosphere. Stratosphere- The layer.
The Earth’s Atmosphere. Lab: Beware of “Air”! The Earth is protected by a blanket of air called the atmosphere.
Layers of the Atmosphere. The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet and makes conditions on Earth suitable for living things.
Atmosphere and Climate Change Chapter 13. Essential Questions What is a climate and what naturally promotes climate change? What is a climate and what.
Solar altitude Solar altitude: angle in degrees above horizon Variations in solar altitude and daylength drive seasonality. ☼ 30 degrees.
Atmosphere and Climate Change Chapter 13. Climate and Climate Change Climate- long term prevailing weather conditions in a particular place Factors.
ENSC201 Part 1. Energy and Mass Chapter 1. Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere.
Terrestrial Atmospheres Solar System Astronomy Chapter 8.
Layers of the Atmosphere. How are they broken up? Temperature Make up (more dense air is in lower layers ) What occurs.
Our atmosphere is perilously thin. Yet it provides important solar protection as well as oxygen.
Basic Properties of the Atmosphere. Composition of the Atmosphere Nitrogen (78.08% ~ 78%) Oxygen (20.95% ~ 21%) Argon0.93% (9300 parts per million)
DAY ONE Chapter 13 Atmosphere and Climate Change Section 2: The Ozone Shield.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.