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Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatics.

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Presentation on theme: "Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatics

2 2.Substitution (with halides) alkane + halogen  haloalkane +hydrogen halide CH 4 + Cl 2  CH 3 Cl + HCl CH 3 Cl + Cl 2  CH 2 Cl 2 + HCl 1.Complete Combustion (Extreme Oxidation) Alkane + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O ALKANES Incomplete combustion Alkane + O 2  CO + H 2 O

3 ALKENES 1.Addition Reactions (breaking of the double bond) A)Halogenation (adding halides) alkene + halogen haloalkane B)Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen) alkene + hydrogen alkane CH 2 =CH 2 + H 2 CH 3 CH 3

4 C)Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides) alkene + hydrogen halide haloalkane Hydrohalogenation and hydration follow Markovnikov’s Rule which states that the hydrogen is added to the carbon with the most hydrogen atoms originally bonded to it. D)Hydration (adding water) alkene + water alcohol

5 Markovnikov’s Rule When a hydrogen halide or water is added to an alkene or an alkyne, the hydrogen atoms bonds to the carbon atom of the multiple bond that already has more hydrogen atoms (“the rich get richer”) (i)Propene reacts with hydrogen bromide (ii)2-methyl-1-pentene reacts with water

6 ALKYNES 1.Addition Reactions (breaking of the multiple bond) A)Halogenation (adding halides) alkyne + 2 halogens haloalkane alkyne + 1 halogen haloalkene

7 B)Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen) alkyne + 2 hydrogen alkane

8 C) Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides) alkyne + 2 hydrogen halides haloalkane

9 Reactions of Aromatics 1.Substitution A)With Halogens benzene + halogen halobenzene + hydrogen halide

10 2.With Alkyl Halides benzene + alkyl halide alkyl benzene + hydrogen halide 3.With Nitric Acid ( not mentioned in textbook) benzene + nitric acid nitrobenzene + water

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