3ALKENES 1. Addition Reactions (breaking of the double bond) A) Halogenation (adding halides)alkene + halogen haloalkaneB) Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen)alkene + hydrogen alkaneCH2=CH2 + H CH3CH3
4C) Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides) alkene + hydrogen halide haloalkane D) Hydration (adding water)alkene + water alcoholHydrohalogenation and hydration follow Markovnikov’s Rule which states that the hydrogen is added to the carbon with the most hydrogen atoms originally bonded to it.
5Markovnikov’s RuleWhen a hydrogen halide or water is added to an alkene or an alkyne, the hydrogen atoms bonds to the carbon atom of the multiple bond that already has more hydrogen atoms(“the rich get richer”)Propene reacts with hydrogen bromide2-methyl-1-pentene reacts with water
6ALKYNES 1. Addition Reactions (breaking of the multiple bond) A) Halogenation (adding halides)alkyne + 2 halogens haloalkanealkyne + 1 halogen haloalkene
9Reactions of Aromatics 1. Substitution A) With Halogens benzene + halogen halobenzene + hydrogen halide
103. With Nitric Acid ( not mentioned in textbook) With Alkyl Halidesbenzene + alkyl halide alkyl benzene + hydrogen halide3. With Nitric Acid ( not mentioned in textbook)benzene + nitric acid nitrobenzene + water