2Click on a region of the table to learn more about that region.
3Alkali MetalsThe alkali metals are the Group 1 metals & include lithium, sodium, potassium and the others in the group. All the alkali metals have an s1 e- configuration. They are very reactive & want to lose 1 electron to obtain a noble gas configuration. They are part of the s-block.Back to Periodic Table
4Alkaline Earth MetalsThe alkaline earth metals are the Group 2 metals & include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, etc. These metals have an s2 e- configuration. They are reactive & want to lose 2 electrons to obtain a noble gas configuration. They are part of the s-block.Back to Periodic Table
5Transition MetalsThe transition metals make up the d-block. Iron, copper, zinc, mercury, gold & silver are all transition metals. Their e- configurations all end in a d sublevel. They are not part of the representative elements and are considered Group B.Back to Periodic Table
6Inner-Transition Metals The inner-transition metals make up the f-block. Uranium is an inner-transition metals. Their e- configurations all end in an f sublevel. The are not part of the representative elements & actually belong in the 6th and 7th periods, not below the Table.Back to Periodic Table
7Other MetalsThe other metals include aluminum & lead. They are all in the p-block & their e- configurations therefore end in a p sublevel. Like the rest of the metals, they are good conductors of both heat and electricity.Back to Periodic Table
8Semi-Metals (Metalloids) The semi-metals or metalloids are not metals & are not non-metals. They are all in the p-block so their e- configurations end in a p sublevel. Their properties are in between those of metals & nonmetals. Silicon and germanium are metalloids.Back to Periodic Table
9Other NonmetalsThe other non-metals include hydrogen, oxygen & carbon – some of the most abundant elements on earth & in the universe! Some, like nitrogen, are gases & some, like carbon, are solids. Hydrogen is the only non-metal not in the p-block.Back to Periodic Table
10HalogensThe halogens are some of the most reactive elements on earth. They include: fluorine & chlorine (gases), bromine (a liquid) and iodine (a solid). They are not found alone in nature and commonly form salts with metals such as sodium (i.e. NaCl) They all end in a p5 configuration.Back to Periodic Table
11Noble GasesThe noble gases include helium, neon & argon. Helium has a 1s2 e- configuration & all the others end in a p6 configuration. This makes them completely stable & unreactive with all the other elements. They are also called the inert gases.Back to Periodic Table
12ScientistsThere were two scientists who designed the periodic table – Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of atomic mass. Later, Moseley used atomic number – this is the table we use today! They were able to predict properties of the missing elements based on where they were in the table.
13Groups & PeriodsThe modern periodic table is arranged in families or groups (vertical columns), & periods (horizontal rows). The period number corresponds to the main energy level being filled with electrons. Groups are numbered Groups 1, 2, & are the representative elements.
14BlocksThere are 4 blocks of the periodic table. The s-block consists of the first two groups. All the s-block elements have an s sublevel e- configuration. The p-block is made of groups They end in a p sublevel e- configuration.
15BlocksThe transition metals make up the d-block. These elements end in a d sub-level configuration. Finally, the f-block consists of the inner-transition metals. They end in an f sub-level configuration. The d-block and f-block are the group B elements.
16Metals vs. Non-MetalsThere are 3 main categories for the elements. Metals are found on the left side of the table, have a luster & conduct heat and electricity. Nonmetals are on the right hand corner, are dull & are not good conductors. The final designation is metalloid or semi-metal.
17MetalloidsMetalloids have intermediate properties between metals and non-metals. They are semi-conductors, which makes them great for use in computer technology. There are only 7 metalloids.
18Periodic TrendsAs you move across a period, the chemical & physical properties of the elements change in a predictable way. Each period repeats this change. This is the Periodic Law. We can determine the properties of the elements based on where they are in the table. There are 3 trends to analyze.
19Atomic RadiusAtomic radius is the size (length) of an atom. As you go down, the radius increases due to an increase in the energy levels. As you go across, the size decreases because of the increased nuclear charge pulling on the electrons without adding an energy level.
20Atomic RadiusThe largest atoms are on the bottom left of the periodic table, and the smallest atoms are on the top right. For instance, sodium (Na) is larger than sulfur (S), but potassium (K) is larger than sodium.
21Ionization EnergyIonization energy is the amount of energy required to take 1 electron away from an atom. The more an atom wants to keep its electrons, the larger the ionization energy will be. Ionization energy increases as you go across a period and decreases as you go down a group.
22Ionization EnergyAs you go across, the elements want to keep their electrons more, so it is harder to take an electron away. As you go down, the atoms get bigger & it becomes easier for the atom to lose 1 electron because they are farther away from the nucleus.
23Ionization EnergyNoble gases have very high ionization energies. Metals have low ionization energies. Calcium (Ca) has a lower ionization energy than Bromine (Br) and Chlorine (Cl) has a higher ionization energy than Bromine.
24ElectronegativityElectronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract an electron to itself during bonding. Nonmetals have high electronegativities because they want to gain electrons to complete their outer energy levels. Metals have low electronegativities because they want to lose electrons.
25ElectronegativityAs you go down a group, electronegativity will decrease because the atoms are getting bigger and there is less attraction from the nucleus. Across a period, electronegativity increases – the elements are smaller and become more stable by gaining electrons.
26ElectronegativityThe most electronegative element is Fluorine (F) (electronegativity = 4). The noble gases do not have electronegativities. Oxygen (O) and Chlorine (Cl) are similar to Fluorine. All the metals have a very low electronegativity and will not want to attract electrons at all.
27Question 1 Which of the following describes sodium (Na)? Alkaline Earth MetalAlkali MetalTransition Metal
28Question 2 Which of the following describes calcium (Ca)? Alkaline Earth MetalAlkali MetalTransition Metal
29Question 3 Which of the following describes Silver (Ag)? Alkaline Earth MetalAlkali MetalTransition Metal
30Question 4 Which of the following describes Oxygen (O)? Other Non-MetalHalogenNoble Gas
31Question 5 Which of the following describes Fluorine (F)? Other Non-MetalHalogenNoble Gas
32Question 6 Which of the following describes Argon (Ar)? Other Non-MetalHalogenNoble Gas
33Question 7 Which of the following describes Hydrogen (H)? Alkali Metal Alkaline Earth MetalNon-Metal
34Question 8 Which of the following describes Silicon (Si)? Other Metal HalogenMetalloid
35Question 9 Which of the following contains only s-block elements? Na, Ca, Li, HNa, Mg, B, SiHe, Sr, Cu, Al
36Question 10 Which of the following contains only p-block elements? He, C, O, AgC, Ar, Si, PoCu, Fe, Au, Y
37Question 11 Which of the following contains only d-block elements? He, C, O, AgC, Ar, Si, PoCu, Fe, Au, Y
38Question 12Which of the following contains only representative elements?He, C, O, AgC, Na, Si, PoU, Kr, F, Be
39Question 13 Which of the following contains only Noble gases? F, Cl, O, NH, He, Br, HgAr, Rn, Kr, He
40Question 14 Which of the following contains only halogens? F, Cl, O, N F, Cl, Br, IBe, Mg, Ca, Sr
41Question 15 Which of the following contains only period 2 elements? Fe, Cu, Zn, CoB, C, N, OBe, Mg, Ca, Sr
42Question 16 Mendeleev arranged the periodic table according to what? Atomic NumberAtomic MassNumber of Electrons
43Question 17 Moseley arranged the periodic table according to what? Atomic NumberAtomic MassNumber of Electrons
44Question 18 The modern periodic table is arranged according to what? Atomic NumberAtomic MassNumber of Electrons
45Question 19 A group or family on the periodic table is: A Horizontal RowA Vertical ColumnA Block
46Question 20The elements in the same group or family on the periodic table have:Different PropertiesSimilar PropertiesA Constant Atomic Mass
47Question 21The elements in the same period on the periodic table have:Different PropertiesSimilar PropertiesA Constant Atomic Mass
48Question 22The ability of an atom to attract an electron during bonding is:ElectronegativityIonization EnergyAtomic Radius
49Question 23 The size or length of an atom is known as: ElectronegativityIonization EnergyAtomic Radius
50Question 24The amount of energy required to remove 1 electron from an atom is:ElectronegativityIonization EnergyAtomic Radius
51Question 25 As you go across a period, electronegativity will: IncreaseDecreaseVary Randomly
52Question 26 As you go across a period, ionization energy will: IncreaseDecreaseVary Randomly
53Question 27 As you go across a period, atomic radius will: Increase DecreaseVary Randomly
54Question 28 As you go down a group, atomic radius will: Increase DecreaseVary Randomly
55Question 29 As you go down a group, electronegativity will: Increase DecreaseVary Randomly
56Question 30 As you go down a group, ionization energy will: Increase DecreaseVary Randomly
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