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Periodic Table Tutorial Chapter 5.4 Chapter 14 Periodic Table Periodic Table Scientists & Definitions Scientists & Definitions Periodic Trends Questions.

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Presentation on theme: "Periodic Table Tutorial Chapter 5.4 Chapter 14 Periodic Table Periodic Table Scientists & Definitions Scientists & Definitions Periodic Trends Questions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Periodic Table Tutorial Chapter 5.4 Chapter 14 Periodic Table Periodic Table Scientists & Definitions Scientists & Definitions Periodic Trends Questions

2 Click on a region of the table to learn more about that region.

3 Alkali Metals The alkali metals are the Group 1 metals & include lithium, sodium, potassium and the others in the group. All the alkali metals have an s 1 e - configuration. They are very reactive & want to lose 1 electron to obtain a noble gas configuration. They are part of the s-block.The alkali metals are the Group 1 metals & include lithium, sodium, potassium and the others in the group. All the alkali metals have an s 1 e - configuration. They are very reactive & want to lose 1 electron to obtain a noble gas configuration. They are part of the s-block. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

4 Alkaline Earth Metals The alkaline earth metals are the Group 2 metals & include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, etc. These metals have an s 2 e - configuration. They are reactive & want to lose 2 electrons to obtain a noble gas configuration. They are part of the s-block.The alkaline earth metals are the Group 2 metals & include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, etc. These metals have an s 2 e - configuration. They are reactive & want to lose 2 electrons to obtain a noble gas configuration. They are part of the s-block. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

5 Transition Metals The transition metals make up the d- block. Iron, copper, zinc, mercury, gold & silver are all transition metals. Their e - configurations all end in a d sublevel. They are not part of the representative elements and are considered Group B.The transition metals make up the d- block. Iron, copper, zinc, mercury, gold & silver are all transition metals. Their e - configurations all end in a d sublevel. They are not part of the representative elements and are considered Group B. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

6 Inner-Transition Metals The inner-transition metals make up the f-block. Uranium is an inner- transition metals. Their e - configurations all end in an f sublevel. The are not part of the representative elements & actually belong in the 6 th and 7 th periods, not below the Table.The inner-transition metals make up the f-block. Uranium is an inner- transition metals. Their e - configurations all end in an f sublevel. The are not part of the representative elements & actually belong in the 6 th and 7 th periods, not below the Table. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

7 Other Metals The other metals include aluminum & lead. They are all in the p-block & their e - configurations therefore end in a p sublevel. Like the rest of the metals, they are good conductors of both heat and electricity.The other metals include aluminum & lead. They are all in the p-block & their e - configurations therefore end in a p sublevel. Like the rest of the metals, they are good conductors of both heat and electricity. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

8 Semi-Metals (Metalloids) The semi-metals or metalloids are not metals & are not non-metals. They are all in the p-block so their e - configurations end in a p sublevel. Their properties are in between those of metals & nonmetals. Silicon and germanium are metalloids.The semi-metals or metalloids are not metals & are not non-metals. They are all in the p-block so their e - configurations end in a p sublevel. Their properties are in between those of metals & nonmetals. Silicon and germanium are metalloids. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

9 Other Nonmetals The other non-metals include hydrogen, oxygen & carbon – some of the most abundant elements on earth & in the universe! Some, like nitrogen, are gases & some, like carbon, are solids. Hydrogen is the only non-metal not in the p-block.The other non-metals include hydrogen, oxygen & carbon – some of the most abundant elements on earth & in the universe! Some, like nitrogen, are gases & some, like carbon, are solids. Hydrogen is the only non-metal not in the p-block. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

10 Halogens The halogens are some of the most reactive elements on earth. They include: fluorine & chlorine (gases), bromine (a liquid) and iodine (a solid). They are not found alone in nature and commonly form salts with metals such as sodium (i.e. NaCl) They all end in a p 5 configuration.The halogens are some of the most reactive elements on earth. They include: fluorine & chlorine (gases), bromine (a liquid) and iodine (a solid). They are not found alone in nature and commonly form salts with metals such as sodium (i.e. NaCl) They all end in a p 5 configuration. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

11 Noble Gases The noble gases include helium, neon & argon. Helium has a 1s 2 e - configuration & all the others end in a p 6 configuration. This makes them completely stable & unreactive with all the other elements. They are also called the inert gases.The noble gases include helium, neon & argon. Helium has a 1s 2 e - configuration & all the others end in a p 6 configuration. This makes them completely stable & unreactive with all the other elements. They are also called the inert gases. Back to Periodic Table Back to Periodic Table

12 Scientists There were two scientists who designed the periodic table – Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of atomic mass. Later, Moseley used atomic number – this is the table we use today! They were able to predict properties of the missing elements based on where they were in the table.There were two scientists who designed the periodic table – Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of atomic mass. Later, Moseley used atomic number – this is the table we use today! They were able to predict properties of the missing elements based on where they were in the table.

13 Groups & Periods The modern periodic table is arranged in families or groups (vertical columns), & periods (horizontal rows). The period number corresponds to the main energy level being filled with electrons. Groups are numbered Groups 1, 2, & are the representative elements.The modern periodic table is arranged in families or groups (vertical columns), & periods (horizontal rows). The period number corresponds to the main energy level being filled with electrons. Groups are numbered Groups 1, 2, & are the representative elements.

14 Blocks There are 4 blocks of the periodic table. The s-block consists of the first two groups. All the s-block elements have an s sublevel e - configuration. The p- block is made of groups They end in a p sublevel e - configuration.There are 4 blocks of the periodic table. The s-block consists of the first two groups. All the s-block elements have an s sublevel e - configuration. The p- block is made of groups They end in a p sublevel e - configuration.

15 Blocks The transition metals make up the d- block. These elements end in a d sub- level configuration. Finally, the f-block consists of the inner-transition metals. They end in an f sub-level configuration. The d-block and f-block are the group B elements.The transition metals make up the d- block. These elements end in a d sub- level configuration. Finally, the f-block consists of the inner-transition metals. They end in an f sub-level configuration. The d-block and f-block are the group B elements.

16 Metals vs. Non-Metals There are 3 main categories for the elements. Metals are found on the left side of the table, have a luster & conduct heat and electricity. Nonmetals are on the right hand corner, are dull & are not good conductors. The final designation is metalloid or semi-metal.There are 3 main categories for the elements. Metals are found on the left side of the table, have a luster & conduct heat and electricity. Nonmetals are on the right hand corner, are dull & are not good conductors. The final designation is metalloid or semi-metal.

17 Metalloids Metalloids have intermediate properties between metals and non- metals. They are semi-conductors, which makes them great for use in computer technology. There are only 7 metalloids.Metalloids have intermediate properties between metals and non- metals. They are semi-conductors, which makes them great for use in computer technology. There are only 7 metalloids.

18 Periodic Trends As you move across a period, the chemical & physical properties of the elements change in a predictable way. Each period repeats this change. This is the Periodic Law. We can determine the properties of the elements based on where they are in the table. There are 3 trends to analyze.As you move across a period, the chemical & physical properties of the elements change in a predictable way. Each period repeats this change. This is the Periodic Law. We can determine the properties of the elements based on where they are in the table. There are 3 trends to analyze.

19 Atomic Radius Atomic radius is the size (length) of an atom. As you go down, the radius increases due to an increase in the energy levels. As you go across, the size decreases because of the increased nuclear charge pulling on the electrons without adding an energy level.Atomic radius is the size (length) of an atom. As you go down, the radius increases due to an increase in the energy levels. As you go across, the size decreases because of the increased nuclear charge pulling on the electrons without adding an energy level.

20 Atomic Radius The largest atoms are on the bottom left of the periodic table, and the smallest atoms are on the top right. For instance, sodium (Na) is larger than sulfur (S), but potassium (K) is larger than sodium.The largest atoms are on the bottom left of the periodic table, and the smallest atoms are on the top right. For instance, sodium (Na) is larger than sulfur (S), but potassium (K) is larger than sodium.

21 Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to take 1 electron away from an atom. The more an atom wants to keep its electrons, the larger the ionization energy will be. Ionization energy increases as you go across a period and decreases as you go down a group.Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to take 1 electron away from an atom. The more an atom wants to keep its electrons, the larger the ionization energy will be. Ionization energy increases as you go across a period and decreases as you go down a group.

22 Ionization Energy As you go across, the elements want to keep their electrons more, so it is harder to take an electron away. As you go down, the atoms get bigger & it becomes easier for the atom to lose 1 electron because they are farther away from the nucleus.As you go across, the elements want to keep their electrons more, so it is harder to take an electron away. As you go down, the atoms get bigger & it becomes easier for the atom to lose 1 electron because they are farther away from the nucleus.

23 Ionization Energy Noble gases have very high ionization energies. Metals have low ionization energies. Calcium (Ca) has a lower ionization energy than Bromine (Br) and Chlorine (Cl) has a higher ionization energy than Bromine.Noble gases have very high ionization energies. Metals have low ionization energies. Calcium (Ca) has a lower ionization energy than Bromine (Br) and Chlorine (Cl) has a higher ionization energy than Bromine.

24 Electronegativity Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract an electron to itself during bonding. Nonmetals have high electronegativities because they want to gain electrons to complete their outer energy levels. Metals have low electronegativities because they want to lose electrons.Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract an electron to itself during bonding. Nonmetals have high electronegativities because they want to gain electrons to complete their outer energy levels. Metals have low electronegativities because they want to lose electrons.

25 Electronegativity As you go down a group, electronegativity will decrease because the atoms are getting bigger and there is less attraction from the nucleus. Across a period, electronegativity increases – the elements are smaller and become more stable by gaining electrons.As you go down a group, electronegativity will decrease because the atoms are getting bigger and there is less attraction from the nucleus. Across a period, electronegativity increases – the elements are smaller and become more stable by gaining electrons.

26 Electronegativity The most electronegative element is Fluorine (F) (electronegativity = 4). The noble gases do not have electronegativities. Oxygen (O) and Chlorine (Cl) are similar to Fluorine. All the metals have a very low electronegativity and will not want to attract electrons at all.The most electronegative element is Fluorine (F) (electronegativity = 4). The noble gases do not have electronegativities. Oxygen (O) and Chlorine (Cl) are similar to Fluorine. All the metals have a very low electronegativity and will not want to attract electrons at all.

27 Question 1 Which of the following describes sodium (Na)?Which of the following describes sodium (Na)? Alkaline Earth Metal Alkali Metal Transition Metal

28 Question 2 Which of the following describes calcium (Ca)?Which of the following describes calcium (Ca)? Alkaline Earth Metal Alkali Metal Transition Metal

29 Question 3 Which of the following describes Silver (Ag)?Which of the following describes Silver (Ag)? Alkaline Earth Metal Alkali Metal Transition Metal

30 Question 4 Which of the following describes Oxygen (O)?Which of the following describes Oxygen (O)? Other Non-Metal Halogen Noble Gas

31 Question 5 Which of the following describes Fluorine (F)?Which of the following describes Fluorine (F)? Other Non-Metal Halogen Noble Gas

32 Question 6 Which of the following describes Argon (Ar)?Which of the following describes Argon (Ar)? Other Non-Metal Halogen Noble Gas

33 Question 7 Which of the following describes Hydrogen (H)?Which of the following describes Hydrogen (H)? Alkali Metal Alkaline Earth Metal Non-Metal

34 Question 8 Which of the following describes Silicon (Si)?Which of the following describes Silicon (Si)? Other Metal Halogen Metalloid

35 Question 9 Which of the following contains only s- block elements?Which of the following contains only s- block elements? Na, Ca, Li, H Na, Mg, B, Si He, Sr, Cu, Al

36 Question 10 Which of the following contains only p- block elements?Which of the following contains only p- block elements? He, C, O, Ag C, Ar, Si, Po Cu, Fe, Au, Y

37 Question 11 Which of the following contains only d- block elements?Which of the following contains only d- block elements? He, C, O, Ag C, Ar, Si, Po Cu, Fe, Au, Y

38 Question 12 Which of the following contains only representative elements?Which of the following contains only representative elements? He, C, O, Ag C, Na, Si, Po U, Kr, F, Be

39 Question 13 Which of the following contains only Noble gases?Which of the following contains only Noble gases? F, Cl, O, N H, He, Br, Hg Ar, Rn, Kr, He

40 Question 14 Which of the following contains only halogens?Which of the following contains only halogens? F, Cl, O, N F, Cl, Br, I Be, Mg, Ca, Sr

41 Question 15 Which of the following contains only period 2 elements?Which of the following contains only period 2 elements? Fe, Cu, Zn, Co B, C, N, O Be, Mg, Ca, Sr

42 Question 16 Mendeleev arranged the periodic table according to what?Mendeleev arranged the periodic table according to what? Atomic Number Atomic Mass Number of Electrons

43 Question 17 Moseley arranged the periodic table according to what?Moseley arranged the periodic table according to what? Atomic Number Atomic Mass Number of Electrons

44 Question 18 The modern periodic table is arranged according to what?The modern periodic table is arranged according to what? Atomic Number Atomic Mass Number of Electrons

45 Question 19 A group or family on the periodic table is:A group or family on the periodic table is: A Horizontal Row A Vertical Column A Block

46 Question 20 The elements in the same group or family on the periodic table have:The elements in the same group or family on the periodic table have: Different Properties Similar Properties A Constant Atomic Mass

47 Question 21 The elements in the same period on the periodic table have:The elements in the same period on the periodic table have: Different Properties Similar Properties A Constant Atomic Mass

48 Question 22 The ability of an atom to attract an electron during bonding is:The ability of an atom to attract an electron during bonding is: Electronegativity Ionization Energy Atomic Radius

49 Question 23 The size or length of an atom is known as:The size or length of an atom is known as: Electronegativity Ionization Energy Atomic Radius

50 Question 24 The amount of energy required to remove 1 electron from an atom is:The amount of energy required to remove 1 electron from an atom is: Electronegativity Ionization Energy Atomic Radius

51 Question 25 As you go across a period, electronegativity will:As you go across a period, electronegativity will: Increase Decrease Vary Randomly

52 Question 26 As you go across a period, ionization energy will:As you go across a period, ionization energy will: Increase Decrease Vary Randomly

53 Question 27 As you go across a period, atomic radius will:As you go across a period, atomic radius will: Increase Decrease Vary Randomly

54 Question 28 As you go down a group, atomic radius will:As you go down a group, atomic radius will: Increase Decrease Vary Randomly

55 Question 29 As you go down a group, electronegativity will:As you go down a group, electronegativity will: Increase Decrease Vary Randomly

56 Question 30 As you go down a group, ionization energy will:As you go down a group, ionization energy will: Increase Decrease Vary Randomly

57 Hooray! You are correct! Click on the next number to continue!

58 Congratulations!! You have successfully completed the tutorial! Go Back to the Beginning.

59 Oops! I’m sorry! You have chosen an incorrect answer! Go Back & Try Again! Go Back & Try Again!


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