2Unit 5: Diversity of Matter Table of Contents19Unit 5: Diversity of MatterChapter 19: Elements and Their Properties19.1: Metals19.2: Nonmetals19.3: Mixed Groups
3Properties of Metals 19.1 All but one are solid at room temperature. Metals- good conductors of heat and electricity,All but one are solid at room temperature.
4Properties of Metals 19.1 Metals also reflect light (Luster) Malleable- Can be hammered or rolled into sheets.Ductile- Can be drawn into wires.
5Metals19.1Metallic BondingIn metallic bonding, positively charged metallic ions are surrounded by a cloud of electrons.Outer-level electrons are not held tightly to the nucleus of an atom. Rather, the electrons move freely among many positively charged ions.
6Metals19.1Metallic BondingMetal does not break because the ions are in layers that slide past one another without losing their attraction to the electron cloud.Metals are good conductors because the outer-level electrons are weakly held.
7Properties of Nonmetals 19.1Properties of NonmetalsMost of your body’s mass is made of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.Calcium, a metal, and other elements make up the remaining four percent of your body’s mass.
8Properties of Nonmetals 19.1Properties of NonmetalsPhosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine are among these other elements found in your body.Nonmetals are elements that usually are gases or brittle solids at room temperature. Poor conductors and not shiny
9Properties of Nonmetals 19.1Properties of NonmetalsIn the periodic table, all nonmetals except hydrogen are found at the right of the stair-step line.
10Nonmetals19.1Bonding in NonmetalsThe electrons in nonmetals are strongly held. So, nonmetals are poor conductors
11Properties of Metalloids Mixed Groups19.1Properties of MetalloidsMetalloids have metallic and nonmetallic properties.
12Properties of Metalloids Mixed Groups19.1Properties of MetalloidsSome metalloids are semiconductors- conduct electricity better than most nonmetals, but not as well as some metalsWith the exception of aluminum, the metalloids are the elements in the periodic table that are located along the stair-step line.
14Metals19.1The Alkali MetalsGroup 1 metals are shiny, malleable, and ductile.They are also good conductors of heat and electricity. They are softer than most other metals.
15Metals19.1The Alkali MetalsGroup 1- Alkali metals- most reactive of all the metals. They react violentlywith oxygen and water.Alkali metals don’t occur in nature in their elemental form and are stored in substances that are unreactive, such as an oil.
16Metals19.1The Alkali MetalsEach atom of an alkali metal has one electron in its outer energy level.This electron is given up when an alkali metal combines with another atom.
17Metals19.1The Alkali MetalsDoctors use lithium compounds to treat bipolar depression.
18Metals19.1The Alkali MetalsThe operation of some photocells depends upon rubidium or cesium compounds.Francium, the last element in Group 1, is extremely rare and radioactive.A radioactive element is one in which the nucleus breaks down and gives off particles and energy.
19The Alkaline Earth Metals 19.1The Alkaline Earth MetalsGroup 2 Alkaline earth metal- Not as reactive as Alkali Metals.
20The Alkaline Earth Metals 19.1The Alkaline Earth MetalsThese electrons are given up when an alkaline earth metal combines with a nonmetal.As a result, the alkaline earth metal becomes a positively charged ion in a compound such as calcium fluoride, CaF2.
21Fireworks and Other Uses Metals19.1Fireworks and Other UsesMagnesium- used to produce the brilliant white color in fireworks.strontium produce the bright red flashes.
22Fireworks and Other Uses Metals19.1Fireworks and Other UsesMagnesium’s lightness and strength account for its use in cars, planes, and spacecraft.Magnesium also is used in compounds to make such things as household ladders, and baseball and softball bats.
23The Alkaline Earth Metals and Your Body 19.1The Alkaline Earth Metals and Your BodyCalcium is seldom used as a free metal, but its compounds are needed for life.Calcium phosphate in your bones helps make them strong.
24The Alkaline Earth Metals and Your Body 19.1The Alkaline Earth Metals and Your BodyThe barium compound BaSO4 is used to diagnose some digestive disorders because it absorbs X-ray radiation well.Radium, the last element in Group 2, is radioactive and is found associated with uranium. It was once used to treat cancers.
25Hydrogen 19.2 90% of Universe is Hydrogen Hydrogen is highly reactive. Nonmetals19.2Hydrogen90% of Universe is HydrogenHydrogen is highly reactive.When water is broken down into its elements, hydrogen becomes a gas made up of diatomic molecules.
26Nonmetals19.2The HalogensGroup 17 Halogens- react and form salts
27Nonmetals19.2The HalogensThey are very reactive in their elemental form, and their compounds have many uses.
28Nonmetals19.2The HalogensBecause an atom of a halogen has seven electrons in its outer energy level, only one electron is needed to complete this energy level.salt - when a halogen gains an electron from a metal
29Nonmetals19.2Uses of HalogensHousehold and industrial bleaches used to whiten flour, clothing, and paper also contain chlorine compounds.
30Uses of Halogens 19.2 Chlorine compounds are used to disinfect water. Nonmetals19.2Uses of HalogensChlorine compounds are used to disinfect water.Chlorine, the most abundant halogen, is obtained from seawater at ocean-salt recovery sites.
31Nonmetals19.2The HalogensIn the gaseous state, the halogens form reactive diatomic covalent molecules and can be identified by their distinctive colors.Click image to play movieChlorine is greenish yellow, bromine is reddish orange, and iodine is violet.
32Nonmetals19.2Uses of HalogensBromine, the only nonmetal that is a liquid at room temperature, also is extracted from compounds in seawater.Bromine compounds are used as dyes in cosmetics.
33Nonmetals19.2Uses of HalogensWhen heated, iodine changes directly to a purple vapor.Sublimation- solid changes directly to a vapor without forming a liquid is called
34Nonmetals19.2The HalogensFluorine is the most chemically active of all elements.Hydrofluoric acid, a mixture of hydrogen fluoride and water, is used to etch glass and to frost the inner surfaces of lightbulbs and is also used in the fabrication of semiconductors.
35Nonmetals19.2The Noble GasesGroup 18 Noble Gases – Un-reactive because their outermost energy levels are full.
36Nonmetals19.2The Noble GasesThe stability of noble gases is what makes them useful.The light weight of helium makes it useful in lighter-than-air blimps and balloons.Neon and argon are used in “neon lights” for advertising.
37Mixed Groups19.3The Boron GroupBoron, a metalloid, is the first element in Group 13.If you look around your home, you might find two compounds of boron.
38Mixed Groups19.3The Boron GroupOne of these is borax, which is used in some laundry products to soften water.The other is boric acid, a mild antiseptic.
39Mixed Groups19.3The Boron GroupAluminum- is the most abundant metal in Earth’s crust.It is used in soft-drink cans, foil wrap, cooking pans, and as siding.Aluminum is strong and light and is used in the construction of airplanes.
40Mixed Groups19.3The Carbon GroupEach element in Group 14, the carbon family, has four electrons in its outer energy level, but this is where much of the similarity ends.
41Mixed Groups19.3The Carbon GroupCarbon is a nonmetal, silicon and germanium are metalloids, and tin and lead are metals.
42Mixed Groups19.3The Carbon GroupCarbon occurs as an element in coal and as a compound in oil, natural gas, and foods.Carbon compounds, many of which are essential to life, can be found in you and all around you.
43The Nitrogen Group 19.3 The nitrogen family makes up Group 15. Mixed Groups19.3The Nitrogen GroupThe nitrogen family makes up Group 15.Each element has five electrons in its outer energy level.These elements tend to share electrons and to form covalent compounds with other elements.
44Mixed Groups19.3The Nitrogen GroupNitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in your body.Each breath you take is about 80 percent gaseous nitrogen in the form of diatomic molecules, N2.
45Uses of the Nitrogen Group Mixed Groups19.3Uses of the Nitrogen GroupPhosphorus is a nonmetal that has three allotropes.Antimony is a metalloid, and bismuth is a metal.Both elements are used with other metals to lower their melting points.
46Mixed Groups19.3The Oxygen GroupGroup 16 on the periodic table is the oxygen group.Oxygen, a nonmetal, exists in the air as diatomic molecules, O2.
47Mixed Groups19.3The Oxygen GroupGroup 16 on the periodic table is the oxygen group.Oxygen, a nonmetal, exists in the air as diatomic molecules, O2.During electrical storms, some oxygen molecules, O2, change into ozone molecules, O3.
48Mixed Groups19.3The Oxygen GroupThe second element in the oxygen group is sulfur.Sulfur is a nonmetal that exists in several allotropic forms.It exists as different-shaped crystals and as a noncrystalline solid.
49Mixed Groups19.3The Oxygen GroupThe nonmetal selenium and two metalloidstellurium and poloniumare the other Group 16 elements.Selenium is the most common of these three.This element is one of several that you need in trace amounts in your diet.But selenium is toxic if too much of it gets into your system.
50Metals19.1Transition ElementsTransition elements are those elements in Groups 3 through 12 in the periodic table.(Transition between the other groups)They are called transition elements because they are considered to be elements in transition between Groups 1 and 2 and Groups 13 through 18.
51Metals19.1Transition ElementsTransition elements are familiar because they often occur in nature as uncombined elements.Transition elements often form colored compounds.Gems show brightly colored compounds containing chromium.
52Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel 19.1 Iron, cobalt, and nickel (Iron Triad) Metals19.1Iron, Cobalt, and NickelIron, cobalt, and nickel (Iron Triad)Elements are used in the process to create various types of steel
53Metals19.1Iron, Cobalt, and NickelIronthe main component of steelis the most widely used of all metals.Nickel is added to some metals to give them strength.Click image to play movie
54Metals19.1Copper, Silver, and Goldcoinage metals - Copper, silver, and gold- stable elements That metals were used widely to make coins.
55Metals19.1Copper, Silver, and GoldCopper often is used in electrical wiring because of its superior ability to conduct electricity and its relatively low cost.Silver iodide and silver bromide break down when exposed to light, producing an image on paper.Consequently, these compounds are used to make photographic film and paper.
56Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury Metals19.1Zinc, Cadmium, and MercuryZinc combines with oxygen in the air to form a thin, protective coating of zinc oxide on its surface.Zinc and cadmium often are used to coat, or plate, other metals such as iron because of this protective quality.
57Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury Metals19.1Zinc, Cadmium, and MercuryMercury is a silvery, liquid metalthe only metal that is a liquid at room temperature.It is used in thermometers, thermostats, switches, and batteries.Mercury is poisonous and can accumulate in the body.
58The Inner Transition Metals 19.1The Inner Transition MetalsInner transition elements- Elements that are disconnected from the periodic table
59The Inner Transition Metals 19.1The Inner Transition MetalsThey are called this because like the transition elements, they fit in the periodic table between Groups 3 and 4 in periods 6 and 7, as shown.
60Metals19.1The LanthanidesLanthanide- Upper row of inner transition elements
61Metals19.1The ActinidesActinide- Lower row of inner transition elements (radioactive)Thorium and uranium are the actinides found in the Earth’s crust in usable quantities.
62Question 1 Answer 19.1 What are common properties of metals? Section Check19.1Question 1What are common properties of metals?AnswerMetals are good conductors of heat and electricity, reflect light, are malleable and ductile, and, except for Mercury, are solid at room temperature.
63Section Check19.1Question 2Which of these best describes electrons in metallic bonding?A. electron acceptorB. electron cloudC. electron donorD. electrons in fixed orbits
64Section Check19.1AnswerThe answer is B. In metallic bonding, positively charged metallic ions are surrounded by a cloud of electrons.
65Section Check19.1Question 3How do alkaline earth metals differ from alkali metals?
66Section Check19.1AnswerAlkali metals have one electron in the outer energy level of each atom. Each atom of alkaline earth metals has two electrons in its outer energy level.
67Section Check19.2Question 1Which elements exist primarily as gases or brittle solids at room temperature?A. metalsB. metalloidsC. nonmetalsD. synthetics
68Section Check19.2AnswerThe answer is C. Solid nonmetals are brittle or powdery and not malleable or ductile.
69Section Check19.2Question 2A(n) __________ molecule consists of two atoms of the same element in a covalent bond.A. actinideB. allotropicC. diatomicD. lanthanide
70Section Check19.2AnswerThe answer is C. When water is broken down into its elements, hydrogen becomes a gas made up of diatomic molecules.
71Section Check19.2Question 3Which of the following accounts for 90 percent of the atoms in the universe?A. carbonB. hydrogenC. nitrogenD. oxygen
72Section Check19.2AnswerThe answer is B. Hydrogen makes up 90 percent of the atoms in the universe. On Earth, most hydrogen is found in the compound water.
73Mixed Groups19.3The Carbon GroupSilicon is second only to oxygen in abundance in Earth’s crust.Allotropes - different forms of the same element.
74Allotropes of Carbon 19.3 Carbon Allotropes- diamond and graphite, Mixed Groups19.3Allotropes of CarbonCarbon Allotropes- diamond and graphite,In a diamond, each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms at the vertices, or corner points, of a tetrahedron.
75Mixed Groups19.3Allotropes of CarbonIn turn, many tetrahedrons join together to form a giant molecule in which the atoms are held tightly in a strong crystalline structure.
76Mixed Groups19.3Allotropes of CarbonIn the mid-1980s, a new allotrope of carbon called buckminsterfullerene was discovered. This soccer-ball-shaped molecule, informally called a buckyball, was named after the architect-engineer R. Buckminster Fuller, who designed structures with similar shapes.
77Mixed Groups19.3The Carbon GroupSilicon is the main component in semiconductorselements that conduct an electric current under certain conditions.Germanium, the other metalloid in the carbon group, is used along with silicon in making semiconductors.
78Mixed Groups19.3The Carbon GroupTin is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion.Tin also is combined with other metals to produce bronze and pewter.Lead was used widely in paint at one time, but because it is toxic, lead no longer is used.
79Mixed Groups19.3Synthetic ElementsBy smashing existing elements with particles accelerated in a heavy ion accelerator, scientists have been successful in creating elements not typically found on Earth.Except for technetium-43 and promethium-61, each synthetic element has more than 92 protons.
80Transuranium Elements Mixed Groups19.3Transuranium Elementstransuranium elements- Man made synthetic elements that are radioactive. (After Uranium)These elements do not belong exclusively to the metal, nonmetal, or metalloid group.
81Mixed Groups19.3Synthetic ElementsPlutonium also can be changed to americium, element 95. This element is used in home smoke detectors.
82Mixed Groups19.3Why make elements?The most recently discovered elements are synthetic.By studying how the synthesized elements form and disintegrate, you can gain an understanding of the forces holding the nucleus together.
83Section Check19.3Question 1Which of these compounds is not an allotrope of carbon?A. buckminsterfullereneB. diamondC. graphiteD. quartz
84Section Check19.3AnswerThe answer is D. Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon dioxide.BuckminsterfullerenerGraphiteDiamond
85Section Check19.3Question 2If you want to use a circle graph to represent the amount of hydrogen in the universe relative to other elements, how many degrees will be used to represent hydrogen?A. 36ºB. 90ºC. 186ºD. 324º
86Section Check19.3AnswerThe answer is D. 90 percent of the 360º in a circle is equal to 324º.
87Section Check19.3Question 3Elements having more than 92 protons are called __________.AnswerThe atomic number of uranium is 92. Elements having more than 92 protons are called transuranium elements, and are synthetic and unstable.
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