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Types of Chemical Reactions Special Cases of Synthesis & Decomposition We know the basics, but how about the specifics?

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Chemical Reactions Special Cases of Synthesis & Decomposition We know the basics, but how about the specifics?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Chemical Reactions Special Cases of Synthesis & Decomposition We know the basics, but how about the specifics?

2 Special Types of Synthesis Reactions Metals Metal + Oxygen → Metal oxide – 4Na (s) + O 2(g) → 2Na 2 O (s) – 2Mg (s) + O 2(g) → 2MgO (s) Metal + Sulfur → Metal Sulfide – Why the same? Metal Oxide + Water → Metal Hydroxide – Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O (l) → 2NaOH (aq) – MgO (s) + H 2 O (l) → Mg(OH) 2(aq)

3 Special Types of Synthesis Reactions Nonmetals Non-metals will react with oxygen to form non- metal oxides: – S 8(s) + 8O 2(g) → 8SO 2(g) – C (s) + O 2(g) → CO 2(g) Non-metals will also react with Cl 2 or Br 2 to form chlorides or bromides – P 4(s) + 6 Br 2(l) → 4 PBr 3(l) Non-metal oxides react with water to form oxyacids: – SO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) → H 2 SO 3(aq)

4 Reactions of Metals with Halogens Mg(s) + Cl 2 (g) → MgCl 2 (s) – This referred to as an oxidation-reduction (REDOX) reaction – Why? – Magnesium is oxidized (electrons are lost) – Chlorine is reduced (electrons are gained) – Cl 2 causes Mg to be oxidized and is called the oxidizing agent – Mg causes Cl 2 to be reduced and is the reducing agent

5 Decomposition Reactions of Metals Metal Carbonates (+ heat) → Metal Oxide + CO 2(g) – CaCO 3 → CaO (s) + CO 2(g) Metal Hydroxides (+ heat) → Metal Oxide + H 2 O (l) – Ca(OH) 2 → CaO + H 2 O – Does not happen for Group I hydroxides

6 Decomposition Reactions of Metals Metal Chlorates (+ heat) → Metal Chloride + O 2(g) – 2 KClO 3(s) → 2 KCl (s) + 3 O 2(g) – This reaction takes place with a catalyst (a substance added to speed up reaction that is not changed) Metal Nitrates (+ heat) → Metal Nitrite + O 2(g) – 2 NaNO 3 → 2 NaNO 2 + O 2(g) Hydrogen Peroxide (+ catalyst) → H 2 O (l) + O 2(g)


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