# Lesson 1 Using the Periodic Table Lesson 2 Metals

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Lesson 1 Using the Periodic Table Lesson 2 Metals
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Using the Periodic Table Lesson 2 Metals Lesson 3 Nonmetals and Metalloids Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Menu

How is the periodic table used to classify and provide information about all known elements?
Chapter Introduction

What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements. Chapter Introduction

Do you agree or disagree?
1. The elements on the periodic table are arranged in rows in the order they were discovered. 2. The properties of an element are related to the element’s location on the periodic table. 3. Fewer than half of the elements are metals. Chapter Introduction

Do you agree or disagree?
4. Metals are usually good conductors of electricity. 5. Most of the elements in living things are nonmetals. 6. Even though they look very different, oxygen and sulfur share some similar properties. Chapter Introduction

Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Using the Periodic Table How are elements arranged on the periodic table? What can you learn about elements from the periodic table? Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC

Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Using the Periodic Table periodic table group period Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab

What is the periodic table?
The periodic table is a chart of the elements arranged into rows and columns according to their physical and chemical properties. It can be used to determine the relationships among the elements. Lesson 1-1

Developing a Periodic Table
When Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev was working on classifying the elements, he placed his list of elements into a table and arranged them in rows of increasing atomic mass. Elements with similar properties were grouped in the same column. Lesson 1-2

Mendeleev noticed that melting point is one property that shows a repeating pattern.
Lesson 1-2

Developing a Periodic Table (cont.)
Boiling point and reactivity also follow a periodic pattern. Mendeleev believed that the atomic masses of certain elements must be invalid because the elements appeared in the wrong place on the periodic table. He placed elements whose properties resembled each other’s closer together in the table. Lesson 1-2

When Moseley listed the elements according to atomic number, columns contained elements with similar properties, such as copper, silver, and gold. Lesson 1-2

Developing a Periodic Table (cont.)
What determines where an element is located on the periodic table you use today? Lesson 1-2

Today’s Periodic Table
You can identify many of the properties of an element from its placement on the periodic table. period Science Use the completion of a cycle; a row on the periodic table Common Use a point used to mark the end of a sentence; a time frame Lesson 1-3

The table is organized into columns, rows, and blocks, which are based on certain patterns of properties. Lesson 1-3

Today’s Periodic Table (cont.)
The element key shows an element’s chemical symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass. The key also contains a symbol that shows the state of matter at room temperature. Lesson 1-3

Today’s Periodic Table (cont.)
A group is a column on the periodic table. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties and react with other elements in similar ways. Lesson 1-3

Today’s Periodic Table (cont.)
What can you infer about the properties of two elements in the same group? Lesson 1-3

Today’s Periodic Table (cont.)
The rows on the periodic table are called periods. The atomic number of each element increases by one as you read from left to right across each period. Lesson 1-3

Today’s Periodic Table (cont.)
Metals are on the left side and in the middle of the periodic table. With the exception of hydrogen, nonmetals are located on the right side of the periodic table. Between the metals and the nonmetals on the periodic table are the metalloids. Lesson 1-3

How Scientists Use the Periodic Table
Even today, new elements are created in laboratories, named, and added to the present-day periodic table. Lesson 1-4

How Scientists Use the Periodic Table (cont.)
Scientists can use the periodic table to predict the properties of new elements they create. The periodic table contains more than 100 elements, each with its unique properties that differ from the properties of other elements. Lesson 1-4

On the periodic table, elements are arranged according to increasing atomic numbers and similar properties. Lesson 1 - VS

A column of the periodic table is called a group
A column of the periodic table is called a group. Elements in the same group have similar properties. Lesson 1 - VS

A row of the periodic table is called a period
A row of the periodic table is called a period. Properties of elements repeat in the same pattern from left to right across each period. Lesson 1 - VS

How did Mendeleev arrange elements when he first used a table to classify elements?
A. columns of increasing atomic mass B. rows of increasing atomic mass C. rows of increasing atomic number D. rows of decreasing atomic number Lesson 1 – LR1

What does the element key of a periodic table indicate?
A. chemical symbol B. atomic number C. atomic mass D. all of these Lesson 1 – LR2

Where are all nonmetals (with the exception of hydrogen) located on the periodic table?
A. top half B. right side C. left side D. bottom half Lesson 1 – LR3

Do you agree or disagree?
1. The elements on the periodic table are arranged in rows in the order they were discovered. 2. The properties of an element are related to the element’s location on the periodic table. Lesson 1 - Now

Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Metals What elements are metals? What are the properties of metals? Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC

Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Metals metal luster ductility malleability alkali metal alkaline earth metal transition element Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab

What is a metal? More than three-quarters of the elements on the periodic table are metals. With the exception of hydrogen, all of the elements in groups 1-12 on the periodic table are metals. Some of the elements in groups are metals. Lesson 2-1

What is a metal? (cont.) To be a metal, an element must have certain properties. How does the position of an element on the periodic table allow you to determine if the element is a metal? Lesson 2-1

What is a metal? (cont.) A metal is an element that is generally shiny. It is easily pulled into wires or hammered into thin sheets. A metal is a good conductor of electricity and thermal energy. Luster describes the ability of a metal to reflect light. Lesson 2-1

What is a metal? (cont.) Ductility is the ability to be pulled into thin wires. ductility from Latin ductilis, means “may be led or drawn” Lesson 2-1

What is a metal? (cont.) Malleability is the ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into sheets. Gold is so malleable that it can be hammered into thin sheets. In general the density, strength, boiling point, and melting point of a metal are greater than those of other elements. Lesson 2-1

What is a metal? (cont.) What are some physical properties of metals?
Lesson 2-1

Group 1: Alkali Metals The elements in group 1 are called alkali metals. The alkali metals include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Alkali metals react quickly with other elements, such as oxygen and in nature, occur only in compounds. Lesson 2-2

Group 1: Alkali Metals (cont.)
Alkali metals react violently with water. They are also soft enough to be cut with a knife. Lesson 2-2

Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
The elements in group 2 on the periodic table are called alkaline earth metals. The alkaline earth metals are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium. Lesson 2-3

Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals (cont.)
Pure alkaline earth metals do not occur naturally but instead combine with other elements and form compounds. Lesson 2-3

Groups 3-12: Transition Elements
The elements in groups 3-12 are called transition elements. Lesson 2-4

Groups 3-12: Transition Elements (cont.)
Transition elements are in a block at the center and two rows at the bottom of the periodic table. Many colorful materials contain small amounts of transition elements. Lesson 2-4

Groups 3-12: Transition Elements (cont.)
All transition elements are metals with higher melting points, greater strength, and higher densities than the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals. Because of their high densities, strength, and resistance to corrosion, transition elements make good building materials. Lesson 2-4

Groups 3-12: Transition Elements (cont.)
Two rows of transition elements—the lanthanide and actinide series—were removed from the main part of the table so that periods 6 and 7 were not longer than the other periods. Lesson 2-4

Patterns in Properties of Metals
Metallic properties include luster, malleability, and electrical conductivity. Lesson 2-5

Properties of metals include conductivity, luster, malleability, and ductility.
Lesson 2 - VS

Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals react easily with other elements. These metals make up groups 1 and 2 on the periodic table. Lesson 2 - VS

Transition elements make up groups 3-12 and the lanthanide and actinide series on the periodic table. Lesson 2 - VS

Which term describes the ability of a metal to reflect light?
A. malleability B. ductility C. luster D. alkaline Lesson 2 – LR1

Which of the following is true of alkaline earth metals?
A. They all belong to the same period. B. They react quickly with other elements. C. They include gold. D. All of the above are true. Lesson 2 – LR2

A. Transition elements have higher melting points.
Which of the following distinguishes transition elements from alkali metals? A. Transition elements have higher melting points. B. Transition elements have greater strength. C. Transition elements have higher densities. D. All of the above are true. Lesson 2 – LR3

3. Fewer than half of the elements are metals.
Do you agree or disagree? 3. Fewer than half of the elements are metals. 4. Metals are usually good conductors of electricity. Lesson 2 - Now

Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Nonmetals and Metalloids Where are nonmetals and metalloids on the periodic table? What are the properties of nonmetals and metalloids? Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC

Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Nonmetals and Metalloids nonmetal halogen noble gas metalloid semiconductor Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab

The Elements of Life More than 96 percent of the mass of the human body comes from four nonmetals–oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Lesson 3-1

The Elements of Life (cont.)
Nonmetals are elements that have no metallic properties. The four elements that make up most of the human body, along with phosphorus and sulfur, are the six elements in proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and other large molecules in your body and in all other living things. Lesson 3-1

How are nonmetals different from metals?
Nonmetals have properties that are different from those of metals. Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature and those that are solid at room temperature have a dull surface, which means they have no luster. Because nonmetals are poor conductors of electricity and thermal energy, they are good insulators. Lesson 3-2

Phosphorus and carbon are dull, brittle solids that do not conduct thermal energy or electricity.
Lesson 3-2

How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
What properties do nonmetals have? Lesson 3-2

How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
An element in group 17 of the periodic table is galled a halogen. halogen from Greek hals, means “salt”; and –gen, means “to produce” Lesson 3-2

How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
The term halogen refers to an element that can react with a metal and form a salt. Lesson 3-2

How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
Halogens react readily with other elements and form compounds. Halogens can only occur naturally in compounds. In general, halogens are less reactive as you move down the group. Lesson 3-2

How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
The elements in group 18 are known as the noble gases. Lesson 3-2

How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
Unlike the halogens, the only way elements in this group react with other elements is under special conditions in a laboratory. Of all the elements, hydrogen has the smallest atomic mass and is the most common element in the universe. Lesson 3-2

How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
Hydrogen is most often classified as a nonmetal because it has many properties like those of nonmetals. However, hydrogen also has some properties similar to those of the group 1 alkali metals. Under conditions on Earth, hydrogen usually behaves as a nonmetal. Lesson 3-2

Between the metals and the nonmetals on the periodic table are elements known as metalloids.
Lesson 3-3

Metalloids (cont.) A metalloid is an element that has physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals. The elements boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine are metalloids. Silicon is the most abundant metalloid in the universe. Lesson 3-3

Metalloids (cont.) Where are metalloids on the periodic table?
Lesson 3-3

Metalloids (cont.) A property of metalloids is the ability to act as a semiconductor. A semiconductor conducts electricity at high temperatures, but not at low temperatures. Lesson 3-3

Metalloids (cont.) Silicon is used in making semiconductor devices for computers and other electronic products. semiconductor from Latin semi-, means “half”; and conducere, means “to bring together” Lesson 3-3

Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
An element’s position on the periodic table tells you a lot about the element. Understanding the properties of elements can help you decide which element to use in a given situation. Lesson 3-4

A nonmetal is an element that has no metallic properties
A nonmetal is an element that has no metallic properties. Solid nonmetals are dull and brittle and do not conduct thermal energy or electricity. Lesson 3 - VS

Halogens and noble gases are nonmetals
Halogens and noble gases are nonmetals. These elements are found in group 17 and group 18 of the periodic table. Lesson 3 - VS

Metalloids have some metallic properties and some nonmetallic properties. The most important use of metalloids is as semiconductors. Lesson 3 - VS

What term refers to elements in group 18 that only react with other elements under special laboratory conditions? A. halogen B. nonmetals C. noble gases D. metalloid Lesson 3 – LR1

Which term refers to an element that conducts electricity at high temperatures, but not at low temperatures? A. metal B. conductor C. halogen D. semiconductor Lesson 3 – LR2

Which term refers to an element that can react with a metal and form a salt?
A. halogen B. noble gas C. semiconductor D. none of the above Lesson 3 – LR3

5. Most of the elements in living things are nonmetals.
Do you agree or disagree? 5. Most of the elements in living things are nonmetals. 6. Even though they look very different, oxygen and sulfur share some similar properties. Lesson 3 - Now

Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice Chapter Review Menu

Elements are organized on the periodic table according to increasing atomic number and similar properties. The BIG Idea

Lesson 1: Using the Periodic Table
Elements are organized on the periodic table by increasing atomic number and similar properties. Elements in the same group, or column, of the periodic table have similar properties. Elements’ properties change across a period, which is a row of the periodic table. Each element key on the periodic table provides the name, symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass for an element. Key Concepts 1

Lesson 2: Metals Metals are located on the left and middle parts of the periodic table. Metals are elements that have ductility, malleability, luster, and conductivity. The alkali metals are in group 1 of the periodic table, and the alkaline earth metals are in group 2. Transition elements are metals in groups 3-12 of the periodic table, as well as the lanthanide and actinide series. Key Concepts 2

Lesson 3: Nonmetals and Metalloids
Nonmetals are on the right side of the periodic table, and metalloids are located between metals and nonmetals. Nonmetals are elements that have no metallic properties. Solid nonmetals are dull in appearance, brittle, and do not conduct electricity. Metalloids are elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals. Some metalloids are semiconductors. Elements in group 17 are called halogens, and elements in group 18 are noble gases. Key Concepts 3

Can new elements created in laboratories be added to the periodic table?
A. no B. yes C. Maybe, but it has never been done. D. none of these Chapter Review – MC1

What is another name for a column on the periodic table?
A. group B. row C. period D. block Chapter Review – MC2

Which term refers to a metal’s ability to be pulled into thin wires?
A. luster B. ductility C. malleability D. alkali Chapter Review – MC3

What term refers to elements that have no metallic properties?
A. metalloids B. metals C. nonmetals D. semiconductors Chapter Review – MC4

More than 96 percent of the mass of the human body comes from four nonmetals—oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and what else? A. boron B. silicon C. nitrogen D. none of these Chapter Review – MC5

Where are metals found on the periodic table?
A. top B. left side and in the middle C. right side D. bottom Chapter Review – STP1

Which group of metals includes sodium, potassium, and cesium?
A. alkali metals B. alkaline earth metals C. transitional elements D. nonmetals Chapter Review – STP2

Which term refers to the ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into sheets?
A. luster B. ductility C. malleability D. conductivity Chapter Review – STP3

Of all the elements, which one has the smallest atomic mass?
A. carbon B. sulfur C. hydrogen D. nitrogen Chapter Review – STP4

Metallic properties of the elements tend to do what as you move down a group?
A. increase B. decrease C. remain the same D. none of these Chapter Review – STP5