Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Using the Periodic Table Lesson 2Lesson 2Metals Lesson 3Lesson 3Nonmetals and Metalloids Chapter Wrap-Up
Chapter Introduction How is the periodic table used to classify and provide information about all known elements?
Chapter Introduction What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.
Chapter Introduction 1.The elements on the periodic table are arranged in rows in the order they were discovered. 2.The properties of an element are related to the element’s location on the periodic table. 3.Fewer than half of the elements are metals. Do you agree or disagree?
Chapter Introduction 4.Metals are usually good conductors of electricity. 5.Most of the elements in living things are nonmetals. 6.Even though they look very different, oxygen and sulfur share some similar properties. Do you agree or disagree?
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC How are elements arranged on the periodic table? What can you learn about elements from the periodic table? Using the Periodic Table
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab periodic table group period Using the Periodic Table
Lesson 1-1 The periodic table is a chart of the elements arranged into rows and columns according to their physical and chemical properties.periodic table It can be used to determine the relationships among the elements. What is the periodic table?
Lesson 1-2 When Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev was working on classifying the elements, he placed his list of elements into a table and arranged them in rows of increasing atomic mass. Elements with similar properties were grouped in the same column. Developing a Periodic Table
Lesson 1-2 Mendeleev noticed that melting point is one property that shows a repeating pattern.
Lesson 1-2 Boiling point and reactivity also follow a periodic pattern. Mendeleev believed that the atomic masses of certain elements must be invalid because the elements appeared in the wrong place on the periodic table. He placed elements whose properties resembled each other’s closer together in the table. Developing a Periodic Table (cont.)
Lesson 1-2 When Moseley listed the elements according to atomic number, columns contained elements with similar properties, such as copper, silver, and gold.
Lesson 1-2 Developing a Periodic Table (cont.) What determines where an element is located on the periodic table you use today?
Lesson 1-3 You can identify many of the properties of an element from its placement on the periodic table. Today’s Periodic Table period Science Use the completion of a cycle; a row on the periodic table Common Use a point used to mark the end of a sentence; a time frame
Lesson 1-3 The table is organized into columns, rows, and blocks, which are based on certain patterns of properties.
Lesson 1-3 Today’s Periodic Table (cont.) The element key shows an element’s chemical symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass. The key also contains a symbol that shows the state of matter at room temperature.
Lesson 1-3 A group is a column on the periodic table.group Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties and react with other elements in similar ways. Today’s Periodic Table (cont.)
Lesson 1-3 Today’s Periodic Table (cont.) What can you infer about the properties of two elements in the same group?
Lesson 1-3 The rows on the periodic table are called periods.periods The atomic number of each element increases by one as you read from left to right across each period. Today’s Periodic Table (cont.)
Lesson 1-3 Metals are on the left side and in the middle of the periodic table. With the exception of hydrogen, nonmetals are located on the right side of the periodic table. Between the metals and the nonmetals on the periodic table are the metalloids. Today’s Periodic Table (cont.)
Lesson 1-4 Even today, new elements are created in laboratories, named, and added to the present-day periodic table. How Scientists Use the Periodic Table
Lesson 1-4 Scientists can use the periodic table to predict the properties of new elements they create. The periodic table contains more than 100 elements, each with its unique properties that differ from the properties of other elements. How Scientists Use the Periodic Table (cont.)
Lesson 1 - VS On the periodic table, elements are arranged according to increasing atomic numbers and similar properties.
Lesson 1 - VS A column of the periodic table is called a group. Elements in the same group have similar properties.
Lesson 1 - VS A row of the periodic table is called a period. Properties of elements repeat in the same pattern from left to right across each period.
Lesson 1 – LR1 A.columns of increasing atomic mass B.rows of increasing atomic mass C.rows of increasing atomic number D.rows of decreasing atomic number How did Mendeleev arrange elements when he first used a table to classify elements?
Lesson 1 – LR2 A.chemical symbol B.atomic number C.atomic mass D.all of these What does the element key of a periodic table indicate?
Lesson 1 – LR3 A.top half B.right side C.left side D.bottom half Where are all nonmetals (with the exception of hydrogen) located on the periodic table?
Lesson 1 - Now 1.The elements on the periodic table are arranged in rows in the order they were discovered. 2.The properties of an element are related to the element’s location on the periodic table. Do you agree or disagree?
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC What elements are metals? What are the properties of metals? Metals
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab metal luster ductility malleability Metals alkali metal alkaline earth metalalkaline earth metal transition element
Lesson 2-1 More than three-quarters of the elements on the periodic table are metals. With the exception of hydrogen, all of the elements in groups 1-12 on the periodic table are metals. Some of the elements in groups 13-15 are metals. What is a metal?
Lesson 2-1 To be a metal, an element must have certain properties. What is a metal? (cont.) How does the position of an element on the periodic table allow you to determine if the element is a metal?
Lesson 2-1 A metal is an element that is generally shiny. It is easily pulled into wires or hammered into thin sheets. A metal is a good conductor of electricity and thermal energy.metal Luster describes the ability of a metal to reflect light.Luster What is a metal? (cont.)
Lesson 2-1 DuctilityDuctility is the ability to be pulled into thin wires. What is a metal? (cont.) ductility from Latin ductilis, means “may be led or drawn”
Lesson 2-1 Malleability is the ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into sheets.Malleability Gold is so malleable that it can be hammered into thin sheets. In general the density, strength, boiling point, and melting point of a metal are greater than those of other elements. What is a metal? (cont.)
Lesson 2-1 What is a metal? (cont.) What are some physical properties of metals?
Lesson 2-2 The elements in group 1 are called alkali metals. alkali metals The alkali metals include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Alkali metals react quickly with other elements, such as oxygen and in nature, occur only in compounds. Group 1: Alkali Metals
Lesson 2-2 Alkali metals react violently with water. They are also soft enough to be cut with a knife. Group 1: Alkali Metals (cont.)
Lesson 2-3 The elements in group 2 on the periodic table are called alkaline earth metals.alkaline earth metals The alkaline earth metals are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium. Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
Lesson 2-3 Pure alkaline earth metals do not occur naturally but instead combine with other elements and form compounds. Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals (cont.)
Lesson 2-4 Groups 3-12: Transition Elements The elements in groups 3-12 are called transition elements. transition elements
Lesson 2-4 Groups 3-12: Transition Elements (cont.) Transition elements are in a block at the center and two rows at the bottom of the periodic table. Many colorful materials contain small amounts of transition elements.
Lesson 2-4 All transition elements are metals with higher melting points, greater strength, and higher densities than the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals. Because of their high densities, strength, and resistance to corrosion, transition elements make good building materials. Groups 3-12: Transition Elements (cont.)
Lesson 2-4 Groups 3-12: Transition Elements (cont.) Two rows of transition elements—the lanthanide and actinide series—were removed from the main part of the table so that periods 6 and 7 were not longer than the other periods.
Lesson 2-5 Metallic properties include luster, malleability, and electrical conductivity. Patterns in Properties of Metals
Lesson 2 - VS Properties of metals include conductivity, luster, malleability, and ductility.
Lesson 2 - VS Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals react easily with other elements. These metals make up groups 1 and 2 on the periodic table.
Lesson 2 - VS Transition elements make up groups 3-12 and the lanthanide and actinide series on the periodic table.
Lesson 2 – LR1 A.malleability B.ductility C.luster D.alkaline Which term describes the ability of a metal to reflect light?
Lesson 2 – LR2 A.They all belong to the same period. B.They react quickly with other elements. C.They include gold. D.All of the above are true. Which of the following is true of alkaline earth metals?
Lesson 2 – LR3 A.Transition elements have higher melting points. B.Transition elements have greater strength. C.Transition elements have higher densities. D.All of the above are true. Which of the following distinguishes transition elements from alkali metals?
Lesson 2 - Now 3.Fewer than half of the elements are metals. 4.Metals are usually good conductors of electricity. Do you agree or disagree?
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC Where are nonmetals and metalloids on the periodic table? What are the properties of nonmetals and metalloids? Nonmetals and Metalloids
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab nonmetal halogen noble gas metalloid semiconductor Nonmetals and Metalloids
Lesson 3-1 More than 96 percent of the mass of the human body comes from four nonmetals– oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The Elements of Life
Lesson 3-1 Nonmetals are elements that have no metallic properties.Nonmetals The four elements that make up most of the human body, along with phosphorus and sulfur, are the six elements in proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and other large molecules in your body and in all other living things. The Elements of Life (cont.)
Lesson 3-2 Nonmetals have properties that are different from those of metals. Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature and those that are solid at room temperature have a dull surface, which means they have no luster. Because nonmetals are poor conductors of electricity and thermal energy, they are good insulators. How are nonmetals different from metals?
Lesson 3-2 Phosphorus and carbon are dull, brittle solids that do not conduct thermal energy or electricity.
Lesson 3-2 How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.) What properties do nonmetals have?
Lesson 3-2 An element in group 17 of the periodic table is galled a halogen.halogen How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.) halogen from Greek hals, means “salt”; and –gen, means “to produce”
Lesson 3-2 The term halogen refers to an element that can react with a metal and form a salt. How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
Lesson 3-2 Halogens react readily with other elements and form compounds. Halogens can only occur naturally in compounds. In general, halogens are less reactive as you move down the group. How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
Lesson 3-2 The elements in group 18 are known as the noble gases.noble gases How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
Lesson 3-2 Unlike the halogens, the only way elements in this group react with other elements is under special conditions in a laboratory. Of all the elements, hydrogen has the smallest atomic mass and is the most common element in the universe. How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
Lesson 3-2 Hydrogen is most often classified as a nonmetal because it has many properties like those of nonmetals. However, hydrogen also has some properties similar to those of the group 1 alkali metals. Under conditions on Earth, hydrogen usually behaves as a nonmetal. How are nonmetals different from metals? (cont.)
Lesson 3-3 Between the metals and the nonmetals on the periodic table are elements known as metalloids.
Lesson 3-3 A metalloid is an element that has physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals.metalloid The elements boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine are metalloids. Silicon is the most abundant metalloid in the universe. Metalloids (cont.)
Lesson 3-3 Metalloids (cont.) Where are metalloids on the periodic table?
Lesson 3-3 A property of metalloids is the ability to act as a semiconductor. A semiconductor conducts electricity at high temperatures, but not at low temperatures.semiconductor Metalloids (cont.)
Lesson 3-3 Silicon is used in making semiconductor devices for computers and other electronic products. Metalloids (cont.) semiconductor from Latin semi-, means “half”; and conducere, means “to bring together”
Lesson 3-4 An element’s position on the periodic table tells you a lot about the element. Understanding the properties of elements can help you decide which element to use in a given situation. Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
Lesson 3 - VS A nonmetal is an element that has no metallic properties. Solid nonmetals are dull and brittle and do not conduct thermal energy or electricity.
Lesson 3 - VS Halogens and noble gases are nonmetals. These elements are found in group 17 and group 18 of the periodic table.
Lesson 3 - VS Metalloids have some metallic properties and some nonmetallic properties. The most important use of metalloids is as semiconductors.
Lesson 3 – LR1 A.halogen B.nonmetals C.noble gases D.metalloid What term refers to elements in group 18 that only react with other elements under special laboratory conditions?
Lesson 3 – LR2 A.metal B.conductor C.halogen D.semiconductor Which term refers to an element that conducts electricity at high temperatures, but not at low temperatures?
Lesson 3 – LR3 A.halogen B.noble gas C.semiconductor D.none of the above Which term refers to an element that can react with a metal and form a salt?
Lesson 3 - Now 5.Most of the elements in living things are nonmetals. 6.Even though they look very different, oxygen and sulfur share some similar properties. Do you agree or disagree?
Chapter Review Menu Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
The BIG Idea Elements are organized on the periodic table according to increasing atomic number and similar properties.
Key Concepts 1 Elements are organized on the periodic table by increasing atomic number and similar properties. Elements in the same group, or column, of the periodic table have similar properties. Elements’ properties change across a period, which is a row of the periodic table. Each element key on the periodic table provides the name, symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass for an element. Lesson 1: Using the Periodic Table
Key Concepts 2 Lesson 2: Metals Metals are located on the left and middle parts of the periodic table. Metals are elements that have ductility, malleability, luster, and conductivity. The alkali metals are in group 1 of the periodic table, and the alkaline earth metals are in group 2. Transition elements are metals in groups 3-12 of the periodic table, as well as the lanthanide and actinide series.
Key Concepts 3 Lesson 3: Nonmetals and Metalloids Nonmetals are on the right side of the periodic table, and metalloids are located between metals and nonmetals. Nonmetals are elements that have no metallic properties. Solid nonmetals are dull in appearance, brittle, and do not conduct electricity. Metalloids are elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals. Some metalloids are semiconductors. Elements in group 17 are called halogens, and elements in group 18 are noble gases.
Chapter Review – MC1 A.no B.yes C.Maybe, but it has never been done. D.none of these Can new elements created in laboratories be added to the periodic table?
Chapter Review – MC2 A.group B.row C.period D.block What is another name for a column on the periodic table?
Chapter Review – MC3 A.luster B.ductility C.malleability D.alkali Which term refers to a metal’s ability to be pulled into thin wires?
Chapter Review – MC4 A.metalloids B.metals C.nonmetals D.semiconductors What term refers to elements that have no metallic properties?
Chapter Review – MC5 A.boron B.silicon C.nitrogen D.none of these More than 96 percent of the mass of the human body comes from four nonmetals—oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and what else?
Chapter Review – STP1 A.top B.left side and in the middle C.right side D.bottom Where are metals found on the periodic table?
Chapter Review – STP2 A.alkali metals B.alkaline earth metals C.transitional elements D.nonmetals Which group of metals includes sodium, potassium, and cesium?
Chapter Review – STP3 A.luster B.ductility C.malleability D.conductivity Which term refers to the ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into sheets?
Chapter Review – STP4 A.carbon B.sulfur C.hydrogen D.nitrogen Of all the elements, which one has the smallest atomic mass?
Chapter Review – STP5 A.increase B.decrease C.remain the same D.none of these Metallic properties of the elements tend to do what as you move down a group?