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Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Acids and Bases Red ants inject formic acid under the skin,

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Acids and Bases Red ants inject formic acid under the skin,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Acids and Bases Red ants inject formic acid under the skin, which causes burning and irritation.

2 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Acids Arrhenius acids produce H + ions in water H 2 O HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl  (aq) are electrolytes have a sour taste turn litmus red neutralize bases

3 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Names of Acids Acids that produce H + and a simple nonmetal ion in water are named with the prefix hydro and end with ic acid. HClhydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid The acid HCN that produces H + and the simple polyatomic ion CN  is also named with hydro. HCN hydrocyanic acid

4 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Oxyacids of Nitrogen and Sulfur Nitrogen and sulfur each form two oxyacids (acids with polyatomic atoms with oxygen) that are named by changing the end of the polyatomic ion ate to ic acid (common form) polyatomic ion ite to ous acid NO 3 − nitrate ionHNO 3 nitric acid NO 2 − nitrite ionHNO 2 nitrous acid SO 4 2− sulfate ionH 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid SO 3 2− sulfite ion H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid

5 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Acids of Halogens with Oxygen Two oxyacids of the halogens in Group 7A(17) are named by changing the end of the common form of ate to ic acid (common form) ClO 3 − chlorate ionHClO 3 chloric acid of ite to ous acid ClO 2 − chlorite ionHClO 2 chlorous acid

6 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Prefixes of Oxyacids of Halogens Two other oxyacids of halogen use prefixes. An acid with one oxygen more than the ic acid is named with the prefix per HClO 3 chloric acid HClO 4 perchloric acid An acid with one oxygen less than the ous acid is named with the prefix hypo HClO 2 chlorous acid HClO hypochlorous acid

7 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Some Acids and Their Anions

8 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Select the correct name for each. A. HBr 1) bromic acid 2) bromous acid 3) hydrobromic acid B. H 2 CO 3 1) carbonic acid 2) hydrocarbonic acid 3) carbonous acid C. HBrO1) hypobromic acid 2) hypobromous acid 3) bromous acid Learning Check

9 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 A. HBr3) hydrobromic acid The name of an acid with H and one nonmetal uses the prefix hydro and ends with ic acid. B. H 2 CO 3 1) carbonic acid An acid with H and a polyatomic ion is named by changing the end of the ion’s name from ate ion to ic acid. C. HBrO2) hypobromous acid A halogen oxyacid with one oxygen less than the ous acid is named by adding the prefix hypo. Solution

10 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Carboxylic Acids A carboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group: a hydroxyl group (  OH) attached to a carbonyl group (  C=O). 10 Red ants inject formic acid under the skin, which causes burning and irritation.

11 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Names and Sources of Some Carboxylic Acids 11

12 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 Naming Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are named in IUPAC by replacing the e in the alkane name with oic acid as common names by using prefixes: form, acet, propion, and butyr H─COOH methanoic acidformic acid CH 3 ─COOH ethanoic acidacetic acid CH 3 ─CH 2 ─COOH propanoic acid propionic acid CH 3 ─CH 2 ─CH 2 ─COOH butanoic acid butyric acid

13 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Example of Naming Carboxylic Acids State the IUPAC and common names of the following: CH 3 —CH 2 —CH 2 —COOH IUPAC name butanoic acid Common name butryic acid

14 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Learning Check Give IUPAC and common names for each of the following: A. CH 3 ─COOH B. CH 3 ─CH 2 ─COOH

15 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 Solution A. CH 3 ─COOH IUPAC name ethanoic acid Common nameacetic acid B. CH 3 ─CH 2 ─COOH IUPAC namepropanoic acid Common namepropionic acid

16 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 Bases Arrhenius bases produce OH − ions in water taste bitter or chalky are electrolytes feel soapy and slippery neutralize acids

17 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 Some Common Bases A base with OH  ions is named as the hydroxide of the metal in the formula. NaOHsodium hydroxide KOHpotassium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxide Al(OH) 3 aluminum hydroxide Fe(OH) 3 iron (III) hydroxide

18 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 18 Match each of the following formulas with its correct name: A. ___HNO 2 1) periodic acid B. ___Ca(OH) 2 2) sulfuric acid C. ___H 2 SO 4 3) sodium hydroxide D. ___HIO 4 4) nitrous acid E. ___NaOH5) calcium hydroxide Learning Check

19 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 19 A. 4) HNO 2 nitrous acid B. 5) Ca(OH) 2 calcium hydroxide C. 2) H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid D. 1) HIO 4 periodic acid E. 3) NaOHsodium hydroxide Solution

20 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 20 Identify each of the following as a characteristic of an A) acid or B) base. __ 1. has a sour taste __ 2. produces OH  in aqueous solutions __ 3. has a chalky taste __ 4. is an electrolyte __ 5. produces H + in aqueous solutions Learning Check

21 Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 21 Identify each as a characteristic of an A) acid or B) base. A) 1. has a sour taste B) 2. produces OH  in aqueous solutions B) 3. has a chalky taste A), B) 4. is an electrolyte A) 5. produces H + in aqueous solutions Solution


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