2 Hydrocarbon Derivatives Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms (like hydrocarbons), but contain additional atoms or groups of atomsFunctional group: an atom or group of atoms that has a characteristic behavior and is substituted into a hydrocarbon
3 Halocarbons Functional group: halogen (-X) General formula: R-X (R is a hydrocarbon derivative)Properties:NonpolarLow b.p.Insoluble in water; soluble in hydrocarbonsExamples: CFC’s, DDT, carbontetrachloride
4 Naming Halocarbons Name hydrocarbon first. Add a prefix to signify number and name of halogen. Always give halogen the smallest number possible.
5 Alcohols Functional group: hydroxyl (-OH) General formula: R-OH Properties:Small alcohols are polar, sol. in waterAs size increases, polarity and solubility decreasesHigher boiling points, due to hydrogen bonding2 OH groups: diol3 OH groups: triol
6 Naming Alcohols Count longest chain that contains the –OH. Add –ol to root name of hydrocarbon name.Give a number for the placement of the –OH.Name any branches as an alkyl group (methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc.) with a number and put in front.
7 Ethers Functional group: ether (-O-) General formula: R-O-R Properties:Small ones are polar, soluble in water.Boiling points are lower than alcohols, higher than hydrocarbons.Uses: solvents; once used as an anesthetic
8 Naming Ethers Two method: IUPAC Look at hydrocarbon on either side of the “-O-”. Small one gets –oxy added to the root word.Second (longer) one is named as a hydrocarbon.
9 Naming Ethers Common Name each hydrocarbon as an alkyl group. Write “ether” at the end.