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26-1: Halocarbons, Alcohols and Ethers

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Presentation on theme: "26-1: Halocarbons, Alcohols and Ethers"— Presentation transcript:

1 26-1: Halocarbons, Alcohols and Ethers

2 Hydrocarbon Derivatives
Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms (like hydrocarbons), but contain additional atoms or groups of atoms Functional group: an atom or group of atoms that has a characteristic behavior and is substituted into a hydrocarbon

3 Halocarbons Functional group: halogen (-X)
General formula: R-X (R is a hydrocarbon derivative) Properties: Nonpolar Low b.p. Insoluble in water; soluble in hydrocarbons Examples: CFC’s, DDT, carbontetrachloride

4 Naming Halocarbons Name hydrocarbon first.
Add a prefix to signify number and name of halogen. Always give halogen the smallest number possible.

5 Alcohols Functional group: hydroxyl (-OH) General formula: R-OH
Properties: Small alcohols are polar, sol. in water As size increases, polarity and solubility decreases Higher boiling points, due to hydrogen bonding 2 OH groups: diol 3 OH groups: triol

6 Naming Alcohols Count longest chain that contains the –OH.
Add –ol to root name of hydrocarbon name. Give a number for the placement of the –OH. Name any branches as an alkyl group (methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc.) with a number and put in front.

7 Ethers Functional group: ether (-O-) General formula: R-O-R
Properties: Small ones are polar, soluble in water. Boiling points are lower than alcohols, higher than hydrocarbons. Uses: solvents; once used as an anesthetic

8 Naming Ethers Two method: IUPAC
Look at hydrocarbon on either side of the “-O-”. Small one gets –oxy added to the root word. Second (longer) one is named as a hydrocarbon.

9 Naming Ethers Common Name each hydrocarbon as an alkyl group.
Write “ether” at the end.

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