Presentation on theme: "26-1: Halocarbons, Alcohols and Ethers. Hydrocarbon Derivatives Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms (like hydrocarbons), but contain additional."— Presentation transcript:
26-1: Halocarbons, Alcohols and Ethers
Hydrocarbon Derivatives Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms (like hydrocarbons), but contain additional atoms or groups of atoms Functional group: an atom or group of atoms that has a characteristic behavior and is substituted into a hydrocarbon
Halocarbons Functional group: halogen (-X) General formula: R-X (R is a hydrocarbon derivative) Properties: –Nonpolar –Low b.p. –Insoluble in water; soluble in hydrocarbons Examples: CFC’s, DDT, carbontetrachloride
Naming Halocarbons 1. Name hydrocarbon first. 2. Add a prefix to signify number and name of halogen. Always give halogen the smallest number possible.
Alcohols Functional group: hydroxyl (-OH) General formula: R-OH Properties: –Small alcohols are polar, sol. in water –As size increases, polarity and solubility decreases –Higher boiling points, due to hydrogen bonding 2 OH groups: diol 3 OH groups: triol
Naming Alcohols 1. Count longest chain that contains the – OH. 2. Add –ol to root name of hydrocarbon name. 3. Give a number for the placement of the – OH. 4. Name any branches as an alkyl group (methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc.) with a number and put in front.
Ethers Functional group: ether (-O-) General formula: R-O-R Properties: –Small ones are polar, soluble in water. –Boiling points are lower than alcohols, higher than hydrocarbons. Uses: solvents; once used as an anesthetic
Naming Ethers Two method: IUPAC 1.Look at hydrocarbon on either side of the “-O-”. Small one gets –oxy added to the root word. 2.Second (longer) one is named as a hydrocarbon.
Naming Ethers Common 1.Name each hydrocarbon as an alkyl group. 2.Write “ether” at the end.