# Periodic Table of Element

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Periodic Table of Element
Mrs. Clendenon

The Periodic Table Name as many things as you can about what you remember about the periodic table of elements

Periodic Table: It is arranged by metals, nonmetals and metalloids

Metals How would you describe metals?
Metals are lustrous (shiny), malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. They are mostly solids at room temp.

Nonmetals – How would you describe these?
Nonmetals are the opposite. They are dull, brittle, nonconductors (insulators). Some are solid, but many are gases, and Bromine is a liquid.

Metalloids – How would you describe these?
Metalloids, aka semi-metals are just that. They have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals. They are shiny but brittle. And they are semiconductors.

Across the Periodic Table
Elements are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (rows 1-7), what is this arrangement called? Periods These elements have the same number of valence shells. How many shells are in period 2? 6? Period 2 would have two shells, while period 6 would have 6. 2nd Period 6th Period

Down the Periodic Table
Elements are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, or 1-8 A,B), what are they called? Family/Groups What do these elements have in common? Same number of valence electrons. Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell

Alkali Family: Halogen Family:
The roman numerals represent the number of valence electrons each family have. How many valence electrons are in the Alkali Earth Family? 1 valence electron Alkali Family: Halogen Family:

1s1 1s22s1 1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d10 5p66s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p67s1 H 1 Li 3 Na 11 K 19 Rb 37 Cs 55 Fr 87 Do you notice any similarity in these configurations of the alkali metals? They all have 1 valence electron

Valence electrons for Elements
Recall that the valence electrons for the elements can be determined based on the elements position on the periodic table. This is based on the family/group they are found in

Infamous Families of the Periodic Table
Name all 6 families. Halogen Alkali Noble Gas Alkaline (earth) Halogens Transition Metals

Which atom is larger in size?
Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius: The size of at atomic radius decrease the closer the element are to the noble gases (to the right). The atomic radius increases as the elements increase in the number of periods (moving down). Which atom is larger in size? K or Kr? ___________ K In or Rb ? ________ Rb

Periodic Table: electron behavior
The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons

Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size
Metals Nonmetals Group 1 Al 143 50 e Group 13 Group 17 e e 152 186 227 Li Na K 60 Li+ F1- 136 F Cl Br 64 99 114 e e 95 Na+ Cl1- 181 Al3+ e e 133 K+ Br-1- 195 Cations are smaller than parent atoms Anions are larger than parent atoms 15

Trend in Electronegativity
Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s attraction for another atom’s electrons. Elements with a high electronegatvity (EN) means it pulls the electron towards itself strongly! Metals are electron givers and have low EN while nonmetals are electron takers and have high EN. What about the noble gases? They have no EN because they have a full outer electron orbital

Electronegativity F Cs Which element has the highest EN? Fluorine
Which element has the least EN? Cesium

Electronegativity Period H B P As Se Ru Rh Pd Te Os Ir Pt Au Po At
2.1 B 2.0 P As Se 2.4 Ru 2.2 Rh Pd Te Os Ir Pt Au Po At 1 1 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A Actinides: Li 1.0 Ca Sc 1.3 Sr Y 1.2 Zr 1.4 Hf Mg La 1.1 Ac Lanthanides: * y Be 1.5 Al Si 1.8 Ti V 1.6 Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu 1.9 Zn 1.7 Ga Ge Nb Mo Tc Ag Cd In Sn Sb Ta W Re Hg Tl Pb Bi N 3.0 O 3.5 F 4.0 Cl C 2.5 S Br 2.8 I 2 2 Na 0.9 K 0.8 Rb Cs 0.7 Ba Fr Ra Below 1.0 3 3 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B 2B Period 4 4 5 5 6 6 Linus Pauling ( ) awarded Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1954 for his 1939 text, The Nature of the Chemical Bond, and also won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his fight to control nuclear weapons. The greater the electronegativity of an atom in a molecule, the more strongly it attracts the electrons in a covalent bond. 7 Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 2nd Edition, page 373 18

Trend in Ionization Energy
Definition – amount energy needed to remove the outer most electron As you go down a group, the first IE decreases because...The electron is further away from the attraction of the nucleus, and The larger the atom is, the easier its electrons are to remove. Trend from left to right – increases Trend from top to bottom – decreases

First Ionization energy
He Helium is a noble gas, the energy to remove its outer valence electron will be extremely high Why does Lithium have a low IE? Lithium would have a lower IE because it has a larger atomic radius than H Why do atoms steal electrons or give them away? Atoms behave in ways to try and achieve a noble gas configuration. Would Beryllium have a higher first or second ionization energy level? Second First Ionization energy H Be B Li Atomic number

Ionization Energy Noble Gas F Cs

Summary of Trend Ionization Energy: Largest toward Fluorine
Electronegativity: Most favorable Fluorine Atomic Radius: Largest toward SW corner of PT

Review Game Round 1 White board

How many valence electrons does Krypton have?
8

What is the family name of the group 2A elements?
Alkaline Earth Metals

Name three characteristics of a metal.
Metals are lustrous (shiny), malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. They are mostly solids at room temp.

What is the family name of the group 8A elements?
Nobel Gases

Draw the Lewis Dot structure for chlorine.

How many valence electrons does this element have?
Ca 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 2

Where are metalloids located?
They are the elements touching the staircase.

What is the family name of the group 7A elements?
Halogens

A vertical column ( ↓ ) of elements on the
periodic table may also be referred to as a: Family or Groups

What is the family name of the group 1A elements?
Alkaline metals

Describe three characteristics of a nonmetal.
Nonmetals are the opposite. They are dull, brittle, nonconductors (insulators). Some are solid, but many are gases, and Bromine is a liquid

Draw the lewis dot structure for Bromide.

A horizontal row ( → ) of elements on the periodic table may also be referred to as a:

Review Game Round 2 clickers

Cations have a ______________ charge and are ______________ than the atoms from which they formed.
A. negative/larger B. positive/smaller C. positive/larger D. negative/smaller B

A. Circle C B. None of these C. Circle D D. Circle B c
Given the representation of a chlorine atom, which circle might represent an atom of bromine? A. Circle C B. None of these C. Circle D D. Circle B c

Of the following elements, which one would have the largest radius?
A. Hydrogen (H) B. Potassium (K) C. Sodium (Na) D. Cesium (Cs) d

The elements with the smallest atomic radii are found in the:
A. lower left-hand corner of the periodic table B. lower right-hand corner of the periodic table C. upper left-hand corner of the periodic table D. upper right-hand corner of the periodic table d

Anions have a ______________ charge and are ______________ than the atoms from which they formed.
A. positive/smaller B. negative/smaller C. positive/larger D. negative/larger d

Of the following elements, which one would have the largest ionization energy?
A. Hydrogen (H) B. Potassium (K) C. Cesium (Cs) D. Sodium (Na) a

The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is known as:
A. electronegatvity B. radioactivity C. electron affinity D. ionization energy D

A. Circle C B. None of these C. Circle B D. Circle D b
Given the representation of a chlorine atom, which circle might represent an atom of fluorine? A. Circle C B. None of these C. Circle B D. Circle D b

The most active metals are located in the:
A. upper right hand corner of the periodic table B. lower left hand corner of the periodic table C. upper left hand corner of the periodic table D. lower right hand corner of the periodic table B

Of the following elements, which one would have the smallest radius?
A. Bromine (Br) B. Fluorine (F) C. Chlorine (Cl) D. Iodine (I) B

As one moves down ( ↓ ) a group on the periodic table, the ionization energy of the elements encountered tends to: A. stay the same B. decrease C. increase B

Of the following elements, which one would have the largest electronegativity energy?
A. Chlorine (Cl) B. Fluorine (F) C. Iodine (I) D. Bromine (Br) B

Of the following elements, which one would have the largest radius?
A. Lithium (Li) B. Nitrogen (N) C. Boron (B) D. Neon (Ne) A

A. Circle C B. Circle B C. Circle D D. None of these D
Given the representation of a chlorine atom, which circle might a chloride ion, Cl-? A. Circle C B. Circle B C. Circle D D. None of these D

As one moves from left to right ( → ) within a
period across the periodic table, the atomic radius of the elements encountered tends to: A. increase B. stay the same C. decrease C

Which of these elements would have the lowest first ionization energy?
A. Element D B. Element C C. Element A D. Element B A

The least electronegative elements are the:
A. Transition metals B. Alkali metals C. Halogens D. Metalloids B

As one moves from left to right ( → ) within a period across the periodic table, the ionization energy of the elements encountered tends to: A. decrease B. increase C. stay the same B

The measure of the attraction that an atom has for electrons involved in chemical bonds is known as:
A. electron affinity B. radioactivity C. electronegatvity D. ionization energy C