2Introduction to Functional Groups 23.1Introduction to Functional GroupsFrom a distance, the musicians in an orchestra may look alike, but each musician contributes a unique sound. In a similar way, one hydrocarbon is nearly identical to another until it picks up a functional group. You will learn how functional groups determine the character of organic compounds.
3Functional Groups How are organic compounds classified? 23.1
423.1Functional GroupsOrganic compounds can be classified according to their functional groups.A functional group is a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions.
623.1Functional GroupsThe hydrocarbon skeletons in the components of these products are chemically similar. Functional groups give each product unique properties and uses.Many consumer products contain hydrocarbon derivatives. The hydrocarbon skeletons in these products are chemically similar. Functional groups give each product unique properties and uses.
723.1Halogen SubstituentsHalogen SubstituentsWhat is a halocarbon?
823.1Halogen SubstituentsA halocarbon is a carbon-containing compound with a halogen substituent.Halocarbons are a class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.
923.1Halogen SubstituentsOn the basis of their common names, halocarbons in which a halogen is attached to a carbon of an aliphatic chain are called alkyl halides.Halocarbons in which a halogen is attached to a carbon of an arene ring are called aryl halides.
1023.1Halogen SubstituentsThe figure below shows the IUPAC names, structural formulas, and space-filling models for three simple hydrocarbons.Structural formulas and space-filling models of halocarbons. a) The common name for chloromethane is methyl chloride. b) The common name for chloroethene is vinyl chloride. c) The common name for chlorobenzene is phenyl chloride.
13Substitution Reactions 23.1Substitution ReactionsSubstitution ReactionsHow may halocarbons be prepared?
14Substitution Reactions 23.1Substitution ReactionsA common type of organic reaction is a substitution reaction, in which an atom, or a group of atoms, replaces another atom or group of atoms.A halogen can replace a hydrogen atom on an alkane to produce a halocarbon.
15Substitution Reactions 23.1Substitution ReactionsA Generalized Equation and a Specific One
16Substitution Reactions 23.1Substitution ReactionsTreating benzene with a halogen in the presence of a catalyst causes the substitution of a hydrogen atom in the ring.
17Substitution Reactions 23.1Substitution ReactionsHalogens on carbon chains are readily displaced by hydroxide ions to produce an alcohol and a salt. The general reaction is as follows.
18Substitution Reactions 23.1Substitution ReactionsHalocarbons also undergo substitution reactions.
2023.1 Section Quiz.1. Organic molecules are classified according to theirfunctional groups.longest chain.derivatives.number of rings.
2123.1 Section Quiz2. What is the correct IUPAC name for the compound CH2BrCH2CH2Br?methylbromoethylbromidedibromopropane1,3-dibromopropanepropyl-1,3-dibromide
2223.1 Section Quiz3. Which reaction will produce a halocarbon?hydrogenation of an alkyl halidesubstitution reaction of a halogen with an alkanereaction of potassium hydroxide with an aryl halidereaction of sodium hydroxide with an alkyl halide
2323.1 Section Quiz4. In a substitution reaction, one of the products formed when CH3CH2Br and OH- ions react isCH3CHBrOH.CH3CH2OH.CH3CHBr.CH3CHO.