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Slide 1 of 23 Chemistry 23.1. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 23 Introduction to Functional Groups From a distance, the musicians in an orchestra.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 of 23 Chemistry 23.1. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 23 Introduction to Functional Groups From a distance, the musicians in an orchestra."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 of 23 Chemistry 23.1

2 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 23 Introduction to Functional Groups From a distance, the musicians in an orchestra may look alike, but each musician contributes a unique sound. In a similar way, one hydrocarbon is nearly identical to another until it picks up a functional group. You will learn how functional groups determine the character of organic compounds. 23.1

3 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Slide 3 of 23 Functional Groups How are organic compounds classified? 23.1

4 Slide 4 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Functional Groups Organic compounds can be classified according to their functional groups. A functional group is a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions. 23.1

5 Slide 5 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Functional Groups 23.1

6 Slide 6 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Functional Groups The hydrocarbon skeletons in the components of these products are chemically similar. Functional groups give each product unique properties and uses. 23.1

7 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Slide 7 of 23 Halogen Substituents What is a halocarbon? 23.1

8 Slide 8 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Halogen Substituents A halocarbon is a carbon-containing compound with a halogen substituent. Halocarbons are a class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine. 23.1

9 Slide 9 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Halogen Substituents On the basis of their common names, halocarbons in which a halogen is attached to a carbon of an aliphatic chain are called alkyl halides. Halocarbons in which a halogen is attached to a carbon of an arene ring are called aryl halides. 23.1

10 Slide 10 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Halogen Substituents The figure below shows the IUPAC names, structural formulas, and space-filling models for three simple hydrocarbons. 23.1

11 Slide 11 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Halogen Substituents 23.1

12 Slide 12 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Halogen Substituents 23.1

13 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Slide 13 of 23 Substitution Reactions How may halocarbons be prepared? 23.1

14 Slide 14 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Substitution Reactions A common type of organic reaction is a substitution reaction, in which an atom, or a group of atoms, replaces another atom or group of atoms. A halogen can replace a hydrogen atom on an alkane to produce a halocarbon. 23.1

15 Slide 15 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Substitution Reactions A Generalized Equation and a Specific One 23.1

16 Slide 16 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Substitution Reactions Treating benzene with a halogen in the presence of a catalyst causes the substitution of a hydrogen atom in the ring. 23.1

17 Slide 17 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Substitution Reactions Halogens on carbon chains are readily displaced by hydroxide ions to produce an alcohol and a salt. The general reaction is as follows. 23.1

18 Slide 18 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Introduction to Functional Groups > Substitution Reactions Halocarbons also undergo substitution reactions. 23.1

19 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 19 of 23 Section Quiz -or- Continue to: Launch: Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 23.1 Section Quiz

20 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 20 of Section Quiz. 1. Organic molecules are classified according to their a.functional groups. b.longest chain. c.derivatives. d.number of rings.

21 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 21 of Section Quiz 2. What is the correct IUPAC name for the compound CH 2 BrCH 2 CH 2 Br? a.methylbromoethylbromide b.dibromopropane c.1,3-dibromopropane d.propyl-1,3-dibromide

22 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 22 of Section Quiz 3. Which reaction will produce a halocarbon? a.hydrogenation of an alkyl halide b.substitution reaction of a halogen with an alkane c.reaction of potassium hydroxide with an aryl halide d.reaction of sodium hydroxide with an alkyl halide

23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 23 of Section Quiz 4. In a substitution reaction, one of the products formed when CH 3 CH 2 Br and OH- ions react is a.CH 3 CHBrOH. b.CH 3 CH 2 OH. c.CH 3 CHBr. d.CH 3 CHO.

24 END OF SHOW


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