Ch. 8 Carbon Chemistry Outline for 8-2 Carbon Compounds
Structure of Hydrocarbons Carbon chains can be straight, branched, or ring shaped. Hydrocarbons with 2 or more carbon atoms form straight chains. Hydrocarbons with 4 or more carbon atoms form branched arrangements as well as straight chains.
Structural Formulas A structural formula shows the kind, number, and arrangement of atoms in a molecule. Each dash represents a bond. Carbon atoms form 4 bonds and Hydrogen atoms form 1. There are NEVER any dangling bonds!!
Structure of Hydrocarbons An isomer is a compound that has the same chemical formula, but different structural formula Each isomer is a different substance with its own characteristic properties Butane- an isomer that is formed in a straight chain Isobutane- an isomer that is formed in a branched chain
Double & Triple Bonds Two Carbon atoms can from a double or triple bond with its self or with other atoms Two Carbon atoms can from a double or triple bond with its self or with other atoms Carbon and Oxygen could form a single or double bond Carbon and Oxygen could form a single or double bond A double bond is represented by a double dash (C=C) A double bond is represented by a double dash (C=C) A triple bond is represented by a triple dash A triple bond is represented by a triple dash
TeAm B00MbaSt!c By, hayley, Emma, and timmer remzii
I. Esters A. a compound made organic acid and alcohol B. smells pleasant and fruitayy C. ingredients in medication like aspirin
II. Polymers A. very large molecule made of many smaller molecules or monomers 1. organic compounds,alchohols,esters,and organic others B.Monomers are the smaller molecules that make up polymers
TEAM 6 Pg.302 substituted hydrocarbons &Compounds containing halogens HYDROCARBONS 1) 1 Carbon and 1 Hydrogen 2) C an form stable bonds with other elements; Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur and Halogens 3) I f one atom is substituted for a hydrogen, it’s a substituted hydrocarbon
Compounds Containing Halogens 1) One or more halogens replace hydrogen atoms. 2) One substance, Freon was widely used as a coolant, but it was banned when it was found to damage the environment. This is an example of compounds containing halogens.
Substituted hydrocarbons I.Substituted Hydrocarbons A. Contain only Hydrogen and Carbon B. Form stable compounds with halogen family C. If Hydrogen is substituted, entirely different compound is made D. A substituted hydrocarbon is when atoms of other elements replace one or more atom/s. II. Compounds Containing Halogens A. In some substituted hydrocarbons, One or more halogen atom replace hydrogen atoms B. Some can re very hazardous like “Freon”.
Isomers A.Compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas. B.Each isomer is a different substance with its own characteristic properties.
A. In addition to a single bond, carbon can form a double or triple bond. B. carbon can also form a single or double bond with oxygen. A triple bond is indicated by a triple dash.
Group India, Emma, Diego, and Rodolfo Pages 302/303 Alcohols and Organic Acids
Alcohols I.OH can also substitute for hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon. A. OH, made of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom, is called a hydroxyl group. B. Properties: dissolves well with water, higher boiling points than carbohydrates with a similar number of carbons.
II. Organic Acids A.An organic acid is a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more carboxyl groups. B.A carboxyl group is written as COOH
I. Two classifications of Hydrocarbons A. Saturated hydrocarbons –l. only make single bonds, it has the maximum # of
Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons Team 5 Trevor, Scott, Wesley
Saturated And Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 1. Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Hydrocarbons with double bonds B. Hydrocarbons with triple bonds 2. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons A. Methane, ethane, propane, and butane B. Ane is saturated C. Ene or Yne are unsaturated
Alcohols and Organic Acids Team 7 Eli Ortiz and Heather Deaton
I. How acids relate to carbon and Hydrocarbons. (Alcohols) A. Substitute for hydrocarbons B. dissolves well in water C. Higher boiling points than hydrocarbons D. some are toxic some are non-toxic
II. How acids relate to carbons and hydrocarbons. (organic acids) A. taste tart or sour B. substituted hydrocarbon C. you can find them in many foods C. you can find them in many foods
Properties of Organic Compounds Organic compounds have similar properties in terms of melting points, boiling points, odor, electrical conductivity, and solubility. Organic compounds have similar properties in terms of melting points, boiling points, odor, electrical conductivity, and solubility. They are liquids and gases at room temperature. They are liquids and gases at room temperature. DO NOT dissolve in water DO NOT dissolve in water DO NOT conduct electricity. DO NOT conduct electricity.
Organic Compounds Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon. Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon. (This term is used because scientists once thought that organic compounds could be produced only by living things.) Plastics, fuels, cleaning solutions, and many others contain organic compounds. Plastics, fuels, cleaning solutions, and many others contain organic compounds. Generally, anything made of Generally, anything made of
Hydrocarbons Quintin, James, and Trevor M Group 6
Substituted Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are created from only Hydrogen and Carbon. Hydrocarbons are created from only Hydrogen and Carbon. If just one atom of another element is substituted for a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon a different compound is created. If just one atom of another element is substituted for a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon a different compound is created. In a substituted hydrocarbon atoms of other elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon. In a substituted hydrocarbon atoms of other elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon.
Compounds Containing Halogens In some substituted hydrocarbons, one or more halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms. In some substituted hydrocarbons, one or more halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms.
Freon Freon CCl2F2 was widely use as a cooling liquid in refrigerators and air conditioners. Freon CCl2F2 was widely use as a cooling liquid in refrigerators and air conditioners.
Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons By Shannon Christina Elizabeth Skyler
Saturated Hydrocarbons It has maximum number of hydrogen atoms on its carbon chain Think of each carbon “saturated” or, filled up with hydrogens
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Double or triple bonds have fewer hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom than a saturated hydrocarbon. uu u
Suffixes ane= SATURATED-Examples: methane, ethane, propane, and butone ene and yne=UNSATURATED
Ethene The simplest unsaturated hydrocarbons with 1 double (C2H4) Fruits produce ethene gas, helps them ripen
Ethyne Simplest hydrocarbon with one triple bond (C2H2) Also known as Acetylene which is used in welding
Esters What is an ester –A compound made by combining a alcohol and organic acid Smell –A pleasant fruity smell Banana apple and pineapple Uses –Medications Local anesthetic (dentists)
Polymers What is a polymer? –A very large molecule made of a chain of many smaller molecules Types –One polymer –Monomers Smaller molecule
Polymers Organic compounds –Alcohol, esters, and others can be linked together to build polymers Polymers made by living things –Sheep grow coats of wool –Cotton fibers come from the seed pods of cotton plants –Silkworms make silk
Polymers –S–Synthetic polymers are made in factories –P–Plastic items are synthetic polymers –P–Polyester and nylons are polymers too.
Group 4 Outline Group 4 Outline By: Jessica Chellsen Zoe Berkowitz Pacifica Boege
What are isomers? What are isomers? 1. Compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas are isomers. 2. Each isomer is a different substance with its own characteristic properties. Different Kinds of isomers Different Kinds of isomers 1. Butane a) Is a straight chain b) Has 4 carbon atoms c) 2. Isobutane d) Branched chain e) b) Has 4 carbon atoms
Double and Triple Bonds Double and Triple Bonds A. Single dash means single bond B. In addition to forming a single bond, 2 carbon atoms can form a double or a triple bond. C. A carbon atom can also form a single or double bond with an oxygen atom.