# Electrocautery.

## Presentation on theme: "Electrocautery."— Presentation transcript:

Electrocautery

Terms Related to Electrocautery
ECU electrocautery unit Cautery and Bovie are used interchangeably to describe the cautery pencil or active electrode FYI: Bovie is the originator of electrocautery surgery, hence called a “Bovie” sometimes Electro- (electrical/electricity) Cauterize (stoppage of bleeding)

Electricity Terms: Current, Volts, OHM’s Law
Electrical Circuit Hot Wire -wire that connects to the switch Neutral Wire –serves as pathway for electrons to return to the energy source, completing the circuit Ground Wire – separate wire that safely conveys any leaking electrons to the ground, preventing injury to the patient or personnel Must have a ground wire to prevent electric shock Generally in wires: red = hot wire, green = neutral wire, black = ground wire

Electricity Terms: Current, Volts, OHM’s Law
Wall Outlets 110V generally Mobile X-Ray = 220V Surgical outlet must have three prongs in surgery First prong (positive) Second prong (negative) Third prong (ground) Wall plates that are red are hooked up to the hospital generator and you will plug important electrical devices into those outlets that are vital to the patient and their surgery

Electricity Terms: Current, Volts, OHM’s Law
Electrical Systems 1. DC (direct current) Flows in one direction from negative pole to positive pole Flashlight is an example of a DC system AC (alternating current) Flow of current reverses periodically One complete cycle occurs when the current moves in one direction then reverses its course One AC cycle is called a Hertz (Hz)

Electrosurgery Electrocautery and electrosurgery do not mean the same thing (will hear terms used interchangeably) ESU =’s cut and coag/ ECU =‘s coag ONLY Electrocautery is using a heated wire to burn the patient’s tissue (eye cautery) Uses DC current, no electricity enters the patient’s body

Electrosurgery Two types ESU: Bipolar and Monopolar
Bipolar used for delicate procedures where there is moisture and a potential for nerve damage Active and Dispersive electrodes are the tines of a two prong forceps Monopolar is used for large surgical areas

Electrosurgery Application or use of an electrical current to cut or coagulate tissue Uses AC current ESU Components: Generator, optional foot pedal, cords, active electrode, and inactive dispersive electrode

Electrosurgery ESU Circuit: ESU generator Conductor cord
Active electrode (pencil) Surgical site Patient (is part of circuit with bipolar) Dispersive electrode (grounding pad with monopolar other tine of forcep with bipolar) ESU Generator

Electrosurgery Hazards
Burns to the surgeon, surgeon assistants, STSR Burns to the patient from poor grounding pad placement, pad becoming loose due to oils, hair, air pockets, or prep-solutions Cautery plume: vaporized tissue contains carcinogens, BBP, and mutagens Smoke evacuators should be used to counteract these hazards Contain an air and charcoal filter Charcoal absorbs odor and hydrocarbons Occupational hazard and patient hazard

Basic Electrical Safety Guidelines
Remove jewelry when operating equipment Secure long hair and loose clothing around power equipment Wear PPE prn Use equipment for intended purpose only Never use equipment you are not trained to use Inspect equipment prior to use Disconnect power prior to maintenance on equipment TURN OFF equipment power prior to unplugging or plugging in equipment Never disconnect a plug by pulling on cord (pull on plug) Hands should be DRY prior to handling equipment or cords/plugs Keep equipment out of line of traffic to avoid injury to person or equipment Tape cords down to floor if they are in traffic to avoid tripping

Electrical Safety Guidelines
Do not use electrical equipment when you’re touching metal or water Unplug electrical equipment before cleaning, inspecting, repairing, or removing anything from them Keep electrical equipment areas clean/free from flammable materials Keep access panels and junction boxes clear Know where fuse boxes and circuit breakers are Make certain all electrical equipment is grounded Do not use water on electrical fires Report unsafe conditions/equipment to supervisor or biomedical/engineering department stat (Know policy of institution regarding damaged equipment) Examples frayed cords, bent plugs, broken switches or outlet covers, smoking or sparking of equipemtn, extension cords in permanent use (should have equipment with proper cord length as JCAH do not recommend use of drop cords-fines involved if caught)ds

Valleylab Generator Features of the monopolar generator:
Cutting and coagulation settings available Bipolar available on left of unit with separate settings Settings average on 0-50 cut and coag (surgeon preference) Standard settings 30/30 Constant increase requests by surgeon mean something is wrong Troubleshooting problems: Tip must be checked, connections checked, if cannot resolve obtain a new bovie pencil first, change ground (circulator) change generator

Bovie scratch pad For non-teflon tips Teflon tip and bovie cleaner Bovie Pencil Bovie holster

Disposable Ophthalmic Forceps Place in sharps container at end of case
Non-disposable Tips Bayonet forcep McPherson’s bipolar forcep Disposable Ophthalmic Forceps Place in sharps container at end of case Bipolar Cautery Tips And disposable cord

EYE Cautery or High Temp Cautery Battery powered Used in Eye Surgery
Peripheral vascular surgery When a hole is needed in a synthetic Dacron graft These cannot be cut as the material will fray, so hole may be burned to seal the area

Electrocautery Review
Monopolar Current travels from generator, to active electrode (cautery pencil), to patient (wound), to inactive or dispersive electrode (grounding pad), back to generator… All components must be present to avoid injury to patient and to utilize device Grounding pad placement must be on a fleshy, non-hairy, non-moist area where it is firmly stuck to skin Ground is placed by circulator Bipolar Current travels tip (active electrode) to patient to tip (dispersive electrode) and is powered by a generator No grounding pad is needed Utilized when a precise cauterization is needed in delicate procedures such as ophthalmic and neurosurgical where precision is key Can have a bipolar with an irrigating port, seen most frequently in neuro procedures with a Bayonet style forcep (Malis Bipolar unit)

Monopolar Cautery Various tips available: long, short, needle tip, teflon coated Come in various colors depending on manufacturer May be hand cautery or foot pedal controlled Grounding pads must be appropriate size for patient (adult and pediatric available) NEVER cut a grounding pad!

Tourniquets Go to this site http://www.tourniquets.org and read:
tourniquet overview use and care sections 2. Also read in Textbook St for the ST

Tourniquet Components
Esmark Tourniquet Cuff (sterile disposable or clean non-disposable) Pneumatic tourniquet machine

Safety Precautions Tourniquet inflation times:
1 hour for upper extremities 1 ½ to 2 hours lower extremities Times exceeding these recommendations put the patient at risk for nerve damage and or tissue ischemia (poor oxygenation/vascular compromise) which can cause tissue necrosis Notify MD after tourniquet has been up for 1 hour. Tourniquets may be deflated for 10 minutes and then re-inflated if necessary

Safety Precautions Continued
Tourniquet pressures: Must not exceed mm/Hg over patient’s systolic blood pressure for upper extremities Must not exceed mm/Hg over patient’s systolic blood pressure for lower extremities