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MH SBI 4U (DNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is thought of as a “recipe for life” DNA is the nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions that bring.

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Presentation on theme: "MH SBI 4U (DNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is thought of as a “recipe for life” DNA is the nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions that bring."— Presentation transcript:

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2 MH SBI 4U

3 (DNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is thought of as a “recipe for life” DNA is the nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions that bring us to life Found in the nucleus of every cell in the human body Four bases: A, T, C, G Our DNA is 99.9% identical 0.1 % is different, 3 million base pairs

4 Dr. Alec Jeffreys Dr. Jeffreys discovered the use of DNA in forensics Fingerprinting was the first method of evidence Searched for a more accurate method DNA in forensic criminology is the use of DNA to match a criminal to a crime scene Which was powerful enough to implicate or eliminate a suspect

5 Southern Hybridization Method -Extracted DNA from evidence is compared to DNA extracted from reference samples -Electrophoresis -Negatively charged DNAs migrate towards the positive electrode -Smaller DNA fragments move faster -Transferred to a nylon membrane (like paper) -A single locus probe is a DNA or RNA sequence that is able to hybridize with DNA from a specific restriction fragmentation -Single locus probes are usually tagged with a radioactive label for easy detection

6 We can extract DNA from almost everything  Blood  Hair  Semen  Saliva  Skin We call this evidence “trace evidence” “May” be enough evidence to put someone away (Ex. taxi)

7 Murder at Rodman Dam, 1988 In July 1987, Randall Scott Jones and Chris Reesh were target shooting (with.3-30 rifles) Truck got stuck in a sandpit Found a couple sleeping in their truck, Matthew Brock and Kelly Lynn Perry They ended up driving away with both trucks What happened?

8 Bodies were found in a nearby forest (both shot) Kelly appeared to have been sexually abused Warrant was issued by court Confessed as soon as the DNA results were announced

9 DNA Databases First Type: Known DNA Second Type: Unknown DNA

10 Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)

11 Wrongfully Accused Worked on freeing the wrongfully accused Many were set free Saved from the death penalty Various speeches all over the internet

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13 Suspect #2

14 Pig Experiment Used to train forensic scientists who get involved right away Pigs have similar skin to a human Used to build their knowledge on the insects that decompose a body

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16 Conclusion Using DNA in forensic criminology has helped the justice system greatly Has sent/taken people to/from prison DNA lasts forever We can improve on the time it takes to analyze DNA

17 References _____. (1999). Forensic DNA. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/28599/courtroom.htmhttp://library.thinkquest.org/28599/courtroom.htm Human Genome Project Information. (2009). DNA Forensics. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml Nute, Dale. (1999). Advice about a Career in Forensic Science. Retrieved from: htpps://www.criminology.fsu.edu/faculty/nute/FScareers.html William C. Thompson. (2008). The Potential for Error in Forensic DNA Testing (and How That Complicates the Use of DNA Databases for Criminal Identification). Retrieved from: http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/H4T5EOYUZI.pdf http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/H4T5EOYUZI.pdf _____. (2010). Forensic DNA analysis in the identification of human remains in mass graves. Retrieved from: http://academicjournals.org/JCPFM/PDF/Pdf2010/Mar/Jakovski et al.pdfhttp://academicjournals.org/JCPFM/PDF/Pdf2010/Mar/Jakovski et al.pdf Advancing Criminal Justice Through DNA Technology. (2010). History of Forensic DNA Analysis. Retrieved from: http://www.dna.gov/basics/analysishistory http://www.dna.gov/basics/analysishistory _____. (2008). Has DNA testing led to significant improvements in the criminal justice system?. Retrieved from: http://deathpenalty.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=001189 http://deathpenalty.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=001189 CBC News Canada. (2010). Key events in the Bernardo/Homolka Case. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2010/06/16/f-bernardo-homolka-timeline.html http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2010/06/16/f-bernardo-homolka-timeline.html National Criminal Justice Reference Service. (2003). Forensic Science. Retrieved from: http://www.policyalmanac.org/crime/archive/forensic_science.shtml http://www.policyalmanac.org/crime/archive/forensic_science.shtml Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. (2003). State of Florida vs. Jones and Reesh, Murder at Rodman Dam, 1988. Retrieved from: http://www.dnai.org/d/index.html?m=1,3 http://www.dnai.org/d/index.html?m=1,3 Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Combined DNA Index System (CODIS). Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/codishttp://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/codis _____. (2001). What is DNA?. Retrieved from: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/bulletins/dna_4_2001/dna2_4_01.htmlhttp://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/bulletins/dna_4_2001/dna2_4_01.html The Biology Project. (1996). DNA Forensics Problem Set 1. Retrieved from: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/problem_sets/DNA_forensics_1/01t.html http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/problem_sets/DNA_forensics_1/01t.html Detective Ray Rikic ( Head of the Hamilton Forensics Police Department)

18 Sites for Pictures http://www.molecularstation.com/images/southern-blot.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/69/205471921_05b52359f6.jpg http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/news/dnafingerprints.gif http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_6WSTYpSuKf0/SwxRK03FeWI/AAAAAAAAABw/ON7EJC 816Cs/s1600/SCANNER.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_6WSTYpSuKf0/SwxRK03FeWI/AAAAAAAAABw/ON7EJC 816Cs/s1600/SCANNER.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_DAgs4uhkNSE/SSH4bh9l6_I/AAAAAAAAABs/M_hpUBCt NRw/s400/DNA+01.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_DAgs4uhkNSE/SSH4bh9l6_I/AAAAAAAAABs/M_hpUBCt NRw/s400/DNA+01.jpg http://bernews.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/dna_crime.jpg http://www.newsnet14.com/images/Codis.jpg http://www2.fbi.gov/hq/lab/lab2006/images/investigations2.jpg http://merahjinggabiru.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/question-mark.jpg http://www.uwindsor.ca/dailynews/2011-10-13/pig-experiment-chance-to-share- forensic-knowledge-with-windsor-police-officers http://www.uwindsor.ca/dailynews/2011-10-13/pig-experiment-chance-to-share- forensic-knowledge-with-windsor-police-officers http://www.gamepimpin.com/content/icons/csi-icon-1.jpg http://www.georgetandy.com/evidence_low_resolution-blk-alpha.jpg


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