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Applications of conducting polymers and their issues in biomedical engineering by Rajeswari Ravichandran, Subramanian Sundarrajan, Jayarama Reddy Venugopal,

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Presentation on theme: "Applications of conducting polymers and their issues in biomedical engineering by Rajeswari Ravichandran, Subramanian Sundarrajan, Jayarama Reddy Venugopal,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Applications of conducting polymers and their issues in biomedical engineering by Rajeswari Ravichandran, Subramanian Sundarrajan, Jayarama Reddy Venugopal, Shayanti Mukherjee, and Seeram Ramakrishna Interface Volume 7(Suppl 5):S559-S579 October 6, 2010 ©2010 by The Royal Society

2 Chemical structures of the various conducting polymers. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

3 Visible spectra of DPPH radicals in methanol after 30 min exposure to nil, (a) µl, (b) 0.01 µl, (c) 0.02 µl and (d) 0.05 µl of a 20% (w/v) solution of short-chain polyaniline grafted to lignin (Gizdavic-Nikolaidis et al. 2004a,b). Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

4 Schematic of the controlled release of dexamethasone: (a) dexamethasone-loaded electrospun PLGA, (b) hydrolytic degradation of PLGA fibres leading to release of the drug and (c) electrochemical deposition of PEDOT around the dexamethasone-loaded electrospun... Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

5 The triple layer device (polypyrrole(ClO−4)/non-conducting and adherent polymer/polypyrrole(ClO−4)) and its macroscopic movement produced as a consequence of volume change in the polypyrrole films. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

6 Dorsal root ganglion explants cultured on conducting polymer (CP) films and nanotubes. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

7 Representative images of cochlear neural explants grown on PPy/pTS polymers with and without neurotrophin. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

8 Schematic of a desirable bioactive CP electrode array with tailored cell response for both cell adherence and neural cell outgrowth (Green et al. 2009a,b). Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

9 A fluorescently labelled section of neural tissue in an implant lumen: (a) neural tissue in the lumen of the Teflon implants and (b) neural tissue in the PPy lumen where the glia has reformed and neurons are present; scale bar, 100 µm; green, glia; red, neu... Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

10 (a,b) SEM images of PEDOT nanotubes. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

11 Electrical properties of neural microelectrodes modified with CP nanotubes. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

12 (a) The average percentage of clearly detectable units and (b) the average SNRs recorded from various modifications of the electrodes including unmodified electrode (control), 30 µm of HG- coated electrode (HG), PEDOT-deposited electrode (PEDOT), PEDOT depos... Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

13 (a) The electrochemical deposition cell and the neural cell monolayer cultured on the surface of the metal electrode prior to polymerization. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

14 The fabrication process for multi-functional polymer coatings on neural microelectrodes: (a) (i) uncoated microelectrode, (ii) electrospinning of DEX-loaded biodegradable nanofibres, (iii) alginate hydrogel coating, and (iv) electrochemical polymerization o... Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

15 Morphology of H9c2 myoblast cells at 20 h of post-seeding on: (a) gelatin fibre, (b) 15 : 85 PANI– gelatin blend fibre, (c) 30 : 70 PANI–gelatin blend fibre, (d) 45 : 55 PANI–gelatin blend fibres, and (e) glass matrices. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

16 SEM micrographs of NCTC keratinocytes (a) cultured onto self-standing oxidized PPy film (original magnification 2400 × ) and (b) grown onto thin oxidized PPy film showing different cell morphologies (original magnification 1000×). Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

17 (a) Optical image showing thin film of PEDOT around MCC 4 h after polymerization. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

18 The proposed mechanism for cell interaction with (a) the reduced and (b) the oxidized PEDOT– tosylate surfaces (Svennersten et al. 2009). Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

19 (a) SEM image of PC12 cells adhered to a PPy/SIBS nanofibrous mat and (b) fluorescence microscope images of phalloidin-stained PC12 cells grown on PPy/SIBS nanofibres (Liu et al. 2008). Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

20 (a) Uncoated electrodes, (b) DEX-loaded electrospun PLDL75G25A nanofibres on the electrodes (PLGA NFs), (c) alginate hydrogel coating of DEX-loaded electrospun PLDL75G25A nanofibres on the electrodes (HG + PLGA NFs), (d) cloudy PEDOT inside the alginate hyd... Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society

21 SEM images of conducting polymers after CV measurement on neural electrode: (a–d) PEDOT film; (e, f) PPy film on a neural electrode showing delamination on the edge of the polymer film. Rajeswari Ravichandran et al. J. R. Soc. Interface 2010;7:S559-S579 ©2010 by The Royal Society


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