Applied Geophysics 4 credits SP07 call#84362/#87487 Instructor Dr. John Louie, LME 217, ph 784-4219 and GEOL 493/693 Mining Exploration.

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Applied Geophysics 4 credits SP07 call#84362/#87487 Instructor Dr. John Louie, LME 217, ph 784-4219 louie@seismo.unr.edu and GEOL 493/693 Mining Exploration Geophysics 4 credits SP07 call #89118/88005 Instructor Dr. Gary Oppliger, LME 304, ph 784-7056 oppliger@mines.unr.edu Office hours: 12:00-1 pm M,T,W GEOL 492/692

Electrical Properties of Rocks and Electrical Resistivity Methods

Resistance Definition of an OHM An ohm is a resistance in a conductor that produces a potential difference of one volt when a current of one ampere is flowing through it.volt ampere R =

Ohm’s Law http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/ohmlaw.html#c1

Resistance vs Resistivity Resistance is relevant only to a particular measurement circuit. Units: Ohms Resistivity is an intrinsic property of all physical materials Units: Ohm-Meters Apparent Resistivity is a resistivity estimate based on a assuming a half-space geometry. Units: Ohm-meters

Electrical Resistivity vs Electrical Conductivity Conductivity = σ = 1/ρ (mho/meters) Resistance = ρ (ohm-meters)

Calculating Resistance from Resistivity http://www.cflhd.gov:80/agm/index.htm

Factors Influencing Electrical Conductivity in Rocks Metallic Sulfide Mineral Content Porosity (connected/effective - fractures or pores) Clay Content Pore saturation (% air or gas) Water salinity (TDS) Hydrocarbon Fluid Saturation Rock Matrix intrinsic resistivity Fluid temperature

Archie’s Law

Formation Factor

The conductivity of most geological formations can be fit to Archie’s Law

Influence of Permeability A rock with a non-conducting matrix must be permeable (connected pores) as well as porous to conduct electricity. Darcy's Law: Ohm's Law: where Despite the similarity between Darcy’s and Ohm’s Laws, electric currents have zero viscosity so even a narrow crack can provide an effective electrical connection between pores that not contribute to hydraulic permeability.

Comparison of electric and hydraulic properties. ElectricalHydraulic Transverse resistance: T =  h i  i = H  l Transmissivity: T h =  h i k i = K l H Longitudinal conductance: S=  h i  i = H/  l Leakance: L h =  k i /h i = K t /H Average aquifer resistivities:  l,  t Average hydraulic conductivities: K l, K t http://www.cflhd.gov:80/agm/index.htm

Electrical resistivity of rocks with various wt % of sulfide. Metallic Sulfide Mineral Content http://www.cflhd.gov:80/agm/index.htm

Effect of Water Temperature http://appliedgeophysics.berkeley.edu:7057/dc/figures/fig43_7.jpg

Conductivity Ranges of Various Materials http://www.cflhd.gov:80/agm/index.htm

Resistance vs Resistivity Resistance is relevant only to a particular measurement circuit. Units: Ohms Resistivity is an intrinsic property of all physical materials Units: Ohm-Meters Apparent Resistivity is a resistivity estimate based on a assuming a half-space geometry. Units: Ohm-meters

Calculating Resistance from Resistivity http://www.cflhd.gov:80/agm/index.htm

Four Electrode Resistivity Measurement on rock sample … are used to avoid electrode contact resistance effects seen in two electrode measurements. C1 C2 current I P1P2

Four electrode resistivity arrays http://www.cflhd.gov/agm/images/fig90.jpg

The Basic Concept of an Earth Resistivity Measurement http://www.cflhd.gov/agm/images/fig91.jpg

Fig. 5.4g Electrode Contact Resistance is typically much higher than the intrinsic earth resistivity

Fig. 5.4g Electrode Contact Resistance is concentrated around each electrode

Fig. 5.4g If a standard two electrode resistivity meter were used to measure the earth’s “resistance” we only obtain information on the quality of the electrode contacts – not the earth’s resistivity

http://appliedgeophysics.berkeley.edu:7057/dc/em44.pdf Pole-Pole Array

Pole-Dipole Array http://appliedgeophysics.berkeley.edu:7057/dc/em44.pdf

Pole-Dipole Array http://appliedgeophysics.berkeley.edu:7057/dc/em44.pdf

Wenner Array http://appliedgeophysics.berkeley.edu:7057/dc/em44.pdf

Schlumberger http://appliedgeophysics.berkeley.edu:7057/dc/em44.pdf

Dipole-Dipole Array

Fig. 5.4g The electric potential varies as 1/r around a single current electrode on a homogeneous half-space

Fig. 5.5g

Fig. 5.9g

Fig. 5.6g Equal potential voltage surfaces between the electrodes

Depth of current flow between two current electrodes

Fig. 5.14g

Fig. 5.13g (a)

Fig. 5.13g (b)

Fig. 5.13g (c)

Fig. 5.12g (a)

Fig. 5.12g (b)

Fig. 5.12g (c)

Fig. 5.14g

Fig. 5.15g (a)

Fig. 5.15g (b)

Fig. 5.13g (b)

Fig. 5.13g (c)

Fig. 5.14g

Fig. 5.15g (a)

Fig. 5.15g (b)

Fig. 5.18g (a)

Fig. 5.18g (b)

Fig. 5.18g (c)

Fig. 5.19g

Fig. 5.21g (a)

Fig. 5.20g

Fig. 5.21g (b)

Fig. 5.21g (c)

Fig. 5.22g

Fig. 5.23g (a)

Fig. 5.23g (c)

Fig. 5.24g (a)

Fig. 5.24g (c)

Fig. 5.25g (a)

Fig. 5.25g (b)

Fig. 5.26g

Fig. 5.27g (a)

Fig. 5.27g (b)

Fig. 5.28g

Fig. 5.29g

Fig. 5.30g (a,b)

Fig. 5.30g (c,d)

Fig. 5.31g

Fig. 5.33g (a)

Fig. 5.33g (b)

Fig. 5.33g (c)

Fig. 5.39g

One point removed

C:\Shortcut to Geo-CD-ROM.exe

Airborne EM Resistivity

http://ece.uprm.edu/~pol/waves_review.pdf

http://appliedgeophysics.berkeley.edu:7057/dc/archie/index.html

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