Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Concentration Self-talk and effects on performance Associate Professor Rylee Dionigi School of Human Movement Studies."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16: Concentration Self-talk and effects on performance Associate Professor Rylee Dionigi School of Human Movement Studies
Outline Introduce Psychological Skills Training Introduce 2 psycho-physiological processes Self-talk: types, components and uses Tips for creating effective self-talk Self-talk and performance enhancement Techniques for improving self-talk –Thought stopping & thought replacement
PST Psychological Skills Training (PST) –The individualised, systematic and consistent practice of mental strategies to develop psychological skills … –for performance enhancement or personal growth, enjoyment. Identify your mental strengths and weaknesses or needs –Develop a PST program to address them (e.g., using self-talk to increase concentration and confidence) Ultimate goal is self-regulation –knowing what “recipe” you need to perform well and effectively manage and monitor it
Psycho-physiological concepts Runner’s high –The runner’s high is a euphoric sensation, usually unexpected, of heightened well-being, an enhanced appreciation of nature, and transcendence of time and space. (Weinberg & Gould, 2015, p. 419) Hitting the wall (Buman et al., 2008) –40-50% of recreational marathon runners –More common in men than women –Self-talk is one of many coping strategies
Self-Talk and Types of Self-Talk Self-talk is any statement or thought about self. Appropriate self-talk helps one focus on the present and can improve performance Types of self-talk: –Positive (motivational) –Negative –Instructional
Components of Self-Talk Categories of positive self-talk –Psych-up (power) –Confidence (I can make it) –Instruction (focus on technique) –Anxiety control (calm down) (continued)
Components of Self-Talk (continued) Categories of negative self-talk –Worry (I’m doing the wrong thing) –Disengagement (I can’t keep going) –Somatic fatigue (I’m tired) Neutral self-talk category: Irrelevant thoughts (what will I do later tonight?)
Use of Self-Talk Motivational Initiating action Sustaining effort Instructional Skill acquisition Breaking bad habits
Self-Talk and Performance Enhancement Positive self-talk improves performance. Under certain conditions negative self-talk enhances performance as well. –East Asians vs European Americans (Peters & Williams, 2006). Collectivist vs Individualistic cultural background Determine the type of task and most appropriate type of self-talk needed for enhancing performance on the task.
Six Rules for Creating Effective Self-Talk Keep phrases short and specific. Use the first person and present tense. Construct positive phrases. Say your phrases with meaning and attention. Speak kindly to yourself. Repeat phrases often.
Techniques for Improving Self-Talk Thought stopping –Identify negative thoughts. –Stop the thoughts before they harm performance. –Clear your mind. –Focus on task-relevant thoughts.
Techniques for Improving Self-Talk (continued) Changing negative self-talk to positive self- talk –Negative: “I’ll never make it to the finish” –Positive: “Just take one step at a time” or –“I kept on telling myself that I put in the training and most of all, I paid good money to run this race—I’m going to finish.” (Buman et al., 2008, p.294) –What do you say to yourself when you run?
Steps in Thought Stopping and Replacing Negative Thoughts Describe the situation where you find yourself thinking negatively. Identify the specific negative self- statements you make Specify a term or cue that you will use as a signal to stop your negative thoughts. List four realistic, positive, and constructive self-statements that you can use to replace the negative thoughts.