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Analysis & Selection of Ignition System P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Strong and Reliable Ignition Ensures Efficient Combustion …..

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Occurrence of Ignition WHEN DOES THE MIXTURE GETS IGNITED ?!?!?! Spark energy must be higher than the minimum energy of ignition of the mixture, Distance between electrodes is larger than the extinguishing distance for a given mixture, Local gradient of velocity is smaller than the critical for a given mixture. Comment: In the cylinder the mixture is moving, which makes ignition difficult.

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Factors affecting ignition The efficiency of ignition strongly depends on the spark characteristics such as total spark energy, the evolution of the current-voltage ratio and the spark duration. The characteristics of spark in turn depend on The local air-fuel ratio at the spark gap at the time of ignition. flow velocity, turbulence parameters and non-adiabatic effects such as heat transfer to the electrodes and cylinder walls.

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Selection of Electrode Spacing & Geometry An increase of electrode spacing reduces the heat loss to the electrodes. It also increases the required breakdown voltage and redistributes the ignition energy in favour of the breakdown mode. The size and shape of the electrodes affects the heat transfer from the plasma. The shape of the electrode tips affects the shape and intensity of the electric field in the gap, and hence affects the breakdown potential. Thinner or streamlined electrodes would reduce secondary losses due to turbulence effects.

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Spark Ignition

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Phases in the Creation of Spark

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Physics of Sparking In 1889, F. Pashchen published a paper which set out what has become known as Paschen's Law. The law essentially states that, at higher pressures (above a few torr) the breakdown characteristics of a gap are a function (generally not linear) of the product of the gas pressure and the gap length. Usually written as V= f( pd ), where p is the pressure and d is the gap distance. Extensive additional experiments for different materials, lower pressures, different gases and a variety of electrode shapes have expanded the data set involved.

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Paschen Curve Paschen found that breakdown voltage was described by the equation Where V is the breakdown voltage, p is the pressure, d is the gap distance. The constants a and b depend upon the composition of the gas. For air at standard atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa, a = 43.6×10 6 V/(atm·m) and b = 12.8.

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Spark Discharge

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Minimum Spark Energy The minimum energy required to ignite a air-fuel mixture. Effect of Various Parameters on MIE: Distance Between Electrodes Fuel Equivalence Ratio Initial Temperature Air Movement

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Measurement of Minimum Ignition Energy

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Ignition energy in air at 1 atm, 20 C FuelE’ (10 -5 J) Methane33 Ethane42 Propane40 n-Hexane95 Iso-Octane29 Acetylene3 Hydrogen2 Methanol21

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Effect of velocity on spark ignition Remark: when the mixture is moving ignition is more difficult Geometrical Model for Kernel due to spark ignition in flow.

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Optimum Turbulence Level for Efficient Ignition

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Electrical Methods to Supply MIE using Spark Inductive ignition system Capacitance ignition systems

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Spark discharge formation in system Inductive ignition system is the most widely used. The operation of inductance ignition system is divided into two periods: Energy storing (also known as dwell angle or time) and spark discharge period. During dwell period the current in the circuit rises by exponential curve. If there is known inductance L and resistance R of the primary windings of ignition coil and voltage of the accumulator V, current i in circuit can be described by formula:

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Estimation Ignition energy The primary coil can be modelled as a resistance and an inductance in series, with the primary current, i, defined by The energy input to the (E p,) of the primarycoil is the integration of the instantaneous current (i) and the supply voltage (V) over the period the coil is switched on :

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The energy stored in the coil (E s,) is defined as

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The effect of the coil-on-time (t’) on Primary and Secondary energies Primary Secondary

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The Efficiency of Coil

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The Spark Energy

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Closing Remarks on Electrical Sparking Advantage of inductive ignition system is long spark duration. The system is more acceptable with lean fuel mixtures, low rpm and light load. Disadvantage of the system is uncontrolled long spark duration which leads to sparkplug wear and erosion. Advantages of capacitance ignition system are fast build-up secondary voltage and higher current than of the inductive system. This system is more suitable for high rpm and rich fuel mixtures. Disadvantage of the system is short spark duration. It leads to rough running at the idle and lean mixtures.

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Hybrid Ignition System

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Multi-spark systems only partially compensate the disadvantages of both ignition systems. Neither of the systems fully meets the requirements of the spark. A hybrid ignition system has advantages of both ignition systems mentioned above. The hybrid ignition system is efficient and has an ability to alter the duration of the spark in a wide range.

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