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Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Structure of matter www.shajara.webnode.com Grade Eight (A) Objectives:.To identify structure of atom.. To identify.

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Presentation on theme: "Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Structure of matter www.shajara.webnode.com Grade Eight (A) Objectives:.To identify structure of atom.. To identify."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Structure of matter Grade Eight (A) Objectives:.To identify structure of atom.. To identify atomic number of an element.. To identify mass number of an atom.. To identify ions and their different types.. To identify molecule.

3 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Structure of matter www. shajara.webnode.com Grade Eight (A) Structure of matter What is Atom Parts of atom Particles of atom Mass number & atomic number What is ion How is the ion form Table of contents

4 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Structure of matter Grade Eight (A) Structure of matter AtomIonMolecule

5 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Matter Matter is made up of tiny particles called atom. The atom has a spherical shape. Watch Video

6 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Inside Atom Atom is made up of the nucleus at the center surrounded by electronic cloud. Watch Video

7 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Sub-atomic Particles - The nucleus: contains two types of particles: - Protons : ( positively charged ) - Neutrons: ( non charged ) - The electron cloud : it surround the nucleus and it contain one type of particles: - Electrons ( negatively charged ) Watch Video

8 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Sub-atomic Particles Sub- atomic particles SymbolElectric chargeLocation ProtonsP +Inside nucleus Neutronsn no chargeInside nucleus Electrons_Move around nucleus Watch Video

9 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Electric Charge of Atom - In an atom; the number of positive charges ( protons ) is equal to the number of negative charges ( electrons). This makes the atom electrically neutral 7 (+) charges and 7 (-) charges8 (+) charges and 8 (-) charges Watch Video

10 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Atomic Symbol An atom can be represented by its atomic symbol: Where X is the chemical symbol of the element. Z is the atomic number. A is the mass number. Watch Video

11 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Atomic number Atomic number= number of protons Z=P For example, The element carbon has 6 protons in its nucleus. Then, Its atomic number Z=6. Watch Video

12 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Mass number Mass number ( A ) = number of protons + number of neutrons A= p +n For example, in the above figure; The first carbon atom has 6 protons and 6 neutrons in its nucleus. Then its mass number A= 12 The second carbon atom has 6 protons and 8 neutrons in its nucleus. Then its mass number A=14 Watch Video

13 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Identity of element Each chemical element is identified by its atomic number (Z) or number of protons Protons=6 Atomic number =6 Carbon element Protons=7 Atomic number =7 Nitrogen element Protons=8 Atomic number =8 Oxygenelement Watch Video

14 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Ions The ion is an atom or group of atoms, that carry a positive or negative charge. The adjacent figure shows molecular models representing some common ions like: K +, Na +, Cl -, Cu 2+, F -, Ca 2+, Watch Video

15 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons How is the ion formed?  When an atom lose or gain electrons, it becomes an ion.  when an atom loses electron, it attains a positive charge( x + ) and is called cation. Lithium atom loses 1 electron and becomes lithium ion. Li – 1 e Li + Lithium atom 3 electrons Lithium ion 2 electrons Watch Video

16 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Ions  when an atom gains electrons, it attains a negative charge (X - ) and it called anion. Fluorine atom gains 1 electron and becomes fluorine ion. F – 1 F - Fluorine atom 9 electrons Fluorine ion 10 electrons Watch Video

17 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Cations and Anions  Ions can be classified according to its electric charge as cations or anions. CationsAnions H + HO - O 2- Mg 2+ F-F- Positively charged ionsNegatively charged ions Watch Video

18 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Mono- and Poly- atomic ions  Ions can be classified according to the number of atoms contained as mono-atomic or poly-atomic ions. Mono-atomic ionsPoly-atomic ions H+H+ HO - O 2- Al 3+ Made up of only one atomMade up of many atoms

19 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Molecules A molecule is neutral group of atoms that act as a unit. Example: carbon dioxide molecule. water molecule. methane molecule. Water molecule Watch Video

20 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Practice Grade Eight (A) Atoms, molecules, and ions are the buildings blocks of elements and compounds. The table below shows models of different particles: OxideAmmoniaDihydrogenHydroniumWaterName of particle Model elements Number of atoms Electric charge Nature of particles +- Coding Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen

21 Shajara Preparatory School E. Lessons Structure of Matter Grade Eight (A) Students Prepared by: Firas Sami Al Haj Moussa Wissam Saddiq Basel Fares Ahmad manasri Hassan shawky Supervised by: T. Wissam Abdallah


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