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Tracking Reaction Progress via Electrochemical Methods.

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Presentation on theme: "Tracking Reaction Progress via Electrochemical Methods."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tracking Reaction Progress via Electrochemical Methods

2 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Following a reaction’s progress Reactions with visible changes Reactions with visible changes Bubbles of gases Bubbles of gases Color changes (colored reactant and/or product or indicator added) Color changes (colored reactant and/or product or indicator added) Reactions with Non-visible changes Reactions with Non-visible changes How do we follow these? Electrochemical methods are one way: Electrochemical methods are one way: Measuring changes in Measuring changes in conductivity conductivity pH pH

3 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Conductometric methods

4 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex  For a solution to conduct an electrical current, what is required?  Solid NaCl is composed of ions, will it conduct electrical current?  Do all ions behave the same in terms of conductance in solution? Na + I-I-I-I-

5 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Ionic 25 o C and infinite dilution or Mobility of Ions Cations Anions  H+H+H+H+350 OH Na + 50 Cl - 76 K+K+K+K+74 Br - 78 NH NO Ca CH 3 COO - 41 SO What ion has the greatest mobility?

6 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex For strong electrolytes:  NaCl = 126  Na 2 SO 4 2(50) = 260  ions  n +   n - 

7 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex If you apply an electrical current to a conductive solution, such as aqueous CuCl 2, what happens? If you apply an electrical current to a conductive solution, such as aqueous CuCl 2, what happens? We want to measure the voltage across two electrodes, such as the paper clips in the home-made conductivity probe. We want to measure the voltage across two electrodes, such as the paper clips in the home-made conductivity probe. However, we would like to limit the electrolysis reactions at the electrodes. However, we would like to limit the electrolysis reactions at the electrodes.

8 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex 1 cm Graphiteelectrode (fairly inert) Voltage converted to conductivity by CBL Conductivity probe Voltage measured with an alternating current to prevent electrolysis (no reaction at electrodes) Units of microsiemens per centimeter 1 cm

9 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex The conductivity of a solution depends on the following factors: Directly on the surface area of Directly on the surface area of the electrodes Inversely on the distance between Inversely on the distance between the electrodes Directly on the concentration of the ions in solution Directly on the concentration of the ions in solution Directly on the mobility of the ions Directly on the mobility of the ions Directly on the temperature Directly on the temperature What influences conductivity? Held constant on probe - Held constant during experiment

10 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Conductometric Titration How does the conductivity change during an acid-base neutralization reaction? How does the conductivity change during an acid-base neutralization reaction? Measure conductivity as titrant is added. Measure conductivity as titrant is added. A change in conductivity must occur at the equivalence point. A change in conductivity must occur at the equivalence point.

11 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex conductivity Volume of titrant (mL NaOH) and the intersection of the two lines locates the equivalence point. HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H 2 O A piece-wise function is generated

12 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex conductivity Volume of titrant (mL NaOH) HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H 2 O equivalence point Lots of H + Less H + Even less H + Only NaCl xs NaOH & salt  H +  OH -   Cl - What is present at various points?

13 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Laboratory titration reaction CH 3 COOH + NH 3  CH 3 COOH + NH 3  where the ammonia is the titrant Can ammonia conduct current? Can ammonia conduct current? How is conductivity going to change? How is conductivity going to change? CH 3 COO - NH 4 +

14 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Potentiometric methods

15 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Direct measurement Unknown E cell Unknown current - + ZnCu currentmeasuringgalvanometer  reactions occur at the electrodes! Cell generates a voltage! Does a reaction occur in the cell?

16 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex - + Simple potentiometer PotentiometricBalance NO current flows - + ZnCu unknown current known current known variable E  prevents any electrochemicalreaction  concentration of ions not changed

17 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex For an electrode measurement, the cell must consist of: Reference electrode Reference electrode Maintains a fixed constant potential Maintains a fixed constant potential Composition must not change Composition must not change Common references Common references Calomel Calomel Silver chloride Silver chloride Indicator electrode Indicator electrode Potential depends on concentration of electroactive species For glass electrode, the electroactive species is H + Must have two electrodes!

18 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex constant pH External solution glassmembrane-hydrated (50  m thick) externalreferenceelectrode (porous plug) potential develops across membrane due to pH difference Combination Glass Electrode solution level internalreferenceelectrode

19 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex at 25 o C: E = E’ – pH depends on internal reference electrode and glass membrane behavior, which changes with time Must calibrate with a buffer! measured voltage

20 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex How does the measured voltage, E, vary with pH? E = E’ – pH E pH E ’ Two point calibration with buffers What type of function is this?

21 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Potentiometric Titration How does the pH change during an acid- base neutralization reaction? How does the pH change during an acid- base neutralization reaction? Measure pH as titrant is added. Measure pH as titrant is added.

22 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex pH Volume of titrant (mL NaOH) HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H 2 O pH = 7 Equivalence point pH How do we locate the equivalence point?

23 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex pH Volume of titrant (mL NaOH) HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H 2 O pH = 7 Just acid Just salt Both acid & salt xs NaOH & salt What is present at various points?

24 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Calculating the derivative of the titration curve We calculate the slope or  pH/  volume between each pair of data points. VolumepH  pH  volume  pH/  vol Ave. Vol Find the maximum of the derivative? This can be done using  List on the TI-83.

25 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex pH Volume of titrant (mL NaOH) HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H 2 O The slope between each pair of data points. How is the slope changing? increasing slope decreasing slope 7 inflection point - changed from increasing to decreasing

26 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Using the derivative to locate the equivalence point pK a The maximum of the derivative locates the equivalence point.

27 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Some questions What indicator would work? What indicator would work? How do you calculate the pK a of the weak acid? How do you calculate the pK a of the weak acid? How do you calculate the molar mass of the weak acid? How do you calculate the molar mass of the weak acid?

28 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Some pH meters are calibrated using only one buffer, a single point calibration. Using E = E’ – pH, explain how this can be done. Some pH meters are calibrated using only one buffer, a single point calibration. Using E = E’ – pH, explain how this can be done. What is the advantage of a two point calibration on a pH meter? What is the advantage of a two point calibration on a pH meter? All of the conductivity measurements were done without calibration of the conductivity probe. Why did things work? All of the conductivity measurements were done without calibration of the conductivity probe. Why did things work?

29 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Which compound has the greater conductivity in 0.1 M solution? Explain why. Which compound has the greater conductivity in 0.1 M solution? Explain why. NaCl or CaCl 2 NaCl or CaCl 2 HCl or KCl HCl or KCl KOH or NaOH KOH or NaOH Why are pH meters calibrated using buffers of known pH instead of acid or base solutions of known concentration and pH? Why are pH meters calibrated using buffers of known pH instead of acid or base solutions of known concentration and pH?

30 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex How does the ionic conductance vary with temperature? Use this equation to describe the variation: How does the ionic conductance vary with temperature? Use this equation to describe the variation: T = 25 [ (T-25)] T = 25 [ (T-25)] where T is Celsius temperature and is the ionic conductance. Values for 25 were given earlier. This equation is usable for all ions except H + and OH -.

31 PGCC CHM 103 Sinex Picking an indicator Which indicator would work? pK In pK In - 1 pK In + 1 colorchangerangex x


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