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By: Josh Gates and Michael Parris. The Rocky Inner Planets The four inner planets are composed of rocks and minerals. Minerals in these planets form by.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Josh Gates and Michael Parris. The Rocky Inner Planets The four inner planets are composed of rocks and minerals. Minerals in these planets form by."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Josh Gates and Michael Parris

2 The Rocky Inner Planets The four inner planets are composed of rocks and minerals. Minerals in these planets form by elements that are deep inside the ground and the great pressure there. Erosion, weathering, and mining are the ways that minerals come to the surface. That Gas Giant Outer Planets The four outer planets are composed of gases. Minerals also form in these planets by pressure and elements. Different elements form here because of the different elements and pressure changes. The way minerals form

3 The Rocky Inner Planets

4 Mercury is the first planet of the solar system. It is one of the four small rocky inner planets with an iron core. It is composed of Iron and silicates—metal and rock— that were separated by weight in the original nebula that the planets formed in. As the planet formed, the outermost silicate crust was eroded by fierce heat and radiation, then blown away from the Sun. As the planet was forming, a giant impact blasted away most of the outer silicate crust (much like what happened to Earth to form the Moon). Mercury

5 Venus is the second planet of the solar system. It is one of the four small rocky inner planets with an iron core. Venus is made up of a central iron core and a rocky mantle, similar to the composition of Earth. Venus' atmosphere is made up mostly of carbon dioxide(96%) and nitrogen(3%). Venus

6 Earth is the third planet of the solar system. It is one of the four small rocky inner planets with an iron core. The composition of the atmosphere of Earth is 21 percent molecular oxygen, 78 percent molecular nitrogen, and 1 percent argon. Trace amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are also present. The mass of the Earth is approximately 5.98×10 24 kg. It is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminium (1.4%); with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements. Due to mass segregation, the core region is believed to be primarily composed of iron (88.8%), with smaller amounts of nickel (5.8%), sulfur (4.5%), and less than 1% trace elements. Earth

7 Mars is the fourth planet of the solar system. It is one of the four small rocky inner planets with an iron core. The dark areas of Mars are characterised by the mafic rock-forming minerals olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase feldspar. These minerals are the primary constituents of basalt, a dark volcanic rock that also makes up the Earth's oceanic crust and the lunar maria. maficolivinepyroxeneplagioclasefeldsparbasaltlunar maria The mineral olivine occurs all over the planet, but some of the largest concentrations are in Nili Fossae, an area containing Noachian-aged rocks. Another large olivine-rich outcrop is in Ganges Chasma, an eastern side chasm of Valles Marineris (pictured). [16] Olivine weathers rapidly into clay minerals in the presence of liquid water. Therefore, areas with large outcroppings of olivine- bearing rock indicate that liquid water has not been abundant since the rocks formed. [2]Nili FossaeNoachianGanges Chasma Valles Marineris [16] [2] Pyroxene minerals are also widespread across the surface. Both low-calcium (ortho-) and high-calcium (clino-) pyroxenes are present, with the high-calcium varieties associated with younger volcanic shields and the low-calcium forms (enstatite) more common in the old highland terrain.volcanic shieldsenstatite Mars

8 The Gas Giant Outer planets

9 Jupiter is the fifth planet of the solar system. It is one of the four Gas giant Outer planets. The interior contains denser materials such that the distribution is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium and 5% other elements by mass. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found. Jupiter

10 Saturn is the sixth planet of the solar system. It is one of the four Gas giant Outer planets. Saturn's atmospheric constituents are, in order by mass, hydrogen (88 per cent) and helium (11 per cent); and the remainder comprises traces of methane, ammonia, ammonia crystals, and such other gases as ethane, ethane (ethylene), and phosphine. Voyager images showed whirls and eddies of clouds occurring deep in a haze that is much thicker than that of Jupiter because of Saturn's lower temperature. The temperatures of Saturn's cloud tops are close to -176° C (- 285° F), about 27° C (49° F) lower than those of such locations on Jupiter. Saturn

11 Uranus is the seventh planet of the solar system. It is one of the four Gas giant Outer planets. The composition of the Uranian atmosphere is different from the rest of the planet, consisting as it does mainly of molecular hydrogen and helium. [12] The helium molar fraction, i.e. the number of helium atoms per molecule of gas, is 0.15 ± 0.03 in the upper troposphere, which corresponds to a mass fraction 0.26 ± This value is very close to the protosolar helium mass fraction of ± 0.01, indicating that helium has not settled in the center of the planet as it has in the gas giants. The third most abundant constituent of the Uranian atmosphere is methane (CH 4 ). Methane possesses prominent absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared (IR) making Uranus aquamarine or cyan in color. Methane molecules account for 2.3% of the atmosphere by molar fraction below the methane cloud deck at the pressure level of 1.3 bar (130 kPa); this represents about 20 to 30 times the carbon abundance found in the Sun. Uranus

12 Neptune is the eighth planet of the solar system. It is one of the four Gas giant Outer planets. Neptune's atmosphere mainly consists of molecular hydrogen (H2) 80%, helium (He) 19% and methane (CH4) 1.5%. It also contains small amounts of hydrogen deuteride (HD) and ethane (C2H6). The average temperature of Neptune at cloud top is -220oC. It has an extremely hot core at about 5150oC, hotter than the surface of the sun. It is most likely that Neptune has a small solid core of a rocky material about the mass of the Earth surrounded by a layer of liquid which is probably Water with molecules of methane and ammonia. The temperature of this water is many times the 100oC that water boils at on Earth, but the extremely high pressure or the Neptunian atmosphere keeps the particles from escaping the water. Neptune

13 THE END

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