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Advances in Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition: Implications on Transition Cow Performance Chuck Schwab Schwab Consulting, LLC, Boscobel, WI Professor Emeritus,

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Presentation on theme: "Advances in Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition: Implications on Transition Cow Performance Chuck Schwab Schwab Consulting, LLC, Boscobel, WI Professor Emeritus,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Advances in Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition: Implications on Transition Cow Performance Chuck Schwab Schwab Consulting, LLC, Boscobel, WI Professor Emeritus, Animal Sciences University of New Hampshire

2 Protein Metabolism in Ruminants Crude protein Saliva True protein Peptides Amino acids Ammonia NPN Microbial protein Urea Liver Microbial protein RUMEN SMALL INT RUP Endogenous protein Metabolizable protein (absorbed AA) RUP Mammary gland MILK Amino acids

3 Amino acid supply and use in dairy cows

4 Amino Acids: The Required Nutrients FOR THE COW Essential 1. Arginine 2. Histidine 3. Isoleucine 4. Leucine 5. Lysine 6. Methionine 7. Phenylalanine 8. Threonine 9. Tryptophan 10. Valine Non-essential 1. Alanine 2. Aspartic acid 3. Asparagine 4. Cysteine 5. Glutamic acid 6. Glutamine 7. Glycine 8. Proline 9. Serine 10. Tyrosine

5 Functions of Amino Acids Required building blocks for the synthesis of tissue, regulatory, protective and secretory proteins…100’s are synthesized every day The AA composition of each protein is different Protein synthesis is a genetically determined event; i.e., AA composition of a protein is the same every time it is synthesized AA are key regulators of various pathological and physiological processes, including immune responses AA are also used to synthesize all of the other N-containing compounds in the body [e.g., dozens of compounds such as hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleotides (RNA and DNA), histamine, polyamines (e.g., spermine and spermidine), etc.]

6 What is the Ideal Balance of Absorbed Amino Acids? Amino acidRulquin (2001) Doepel et al. (2004) Segmented Logistic linear model model Arginine Histidine* Isoleucine Leucine Lysine* Methionine*2.5 Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine

7 LysMetHisLysMetHis Tissue Brewer’s grains Milk Canola meal Bacteria Corn DDGS Corn gluten feed Ideal Corn gluten meal Cotton seed Alfalfa silage Linseed meal Corn silage Soybean meal Grass silage Blood meal Barley Feather meal Corn Fish meal Wheat Meat meal Lys and Met in lean tissue, milk, rumen bacteria and feedstuffs (% of protein), relative to predicted optimum concentrations in MP

8 Limiting AA Theory  First limiting AA = the essential AA supplied in the smallest amount relative to requirements  Second limiting AA = the essential AA supplied in the second smallest amount relative to requirements

9 Optimum content of Lys in MP

10 Optimum content of Met in MP

11 Current knowledge regarding optimum AA concentrations in MP Whitehouse et al. (2013) ModelLysineMethionine Optimal Lys/Met ratio NRC (2001), revised CPM-Dairy AMTS v

12 Goal : To meet RDP and RUP requirements for optimum performance with minimum amounts of each 1) RDP – purpose is to meet the ammonia and AA requirements of rumen microbes for maximum carbohydrate digestion and synthesis of microbial protein 2) RUP – purpose is to provide the additional AA, in the correct balance, that the cow requires that are not provided by microbial protein

13 Practical Protein and Amino Acid Balancing Guidelines 6 steps 1. Feed a blend of high quality fermentable feeds and physically effective fiber to maximize synthesis of VFA and microbial protein

14 Right blend of carbohydrates? PLANT CARBOHYDRATES Cell contents Cell walls Organic acids Sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose) StarchesFructans Pectic substances and B-glucan HemicelluloseCellulose NDSFADF NDF NDSC (NFC) Hall, 1999

15 Practical Amino Acid balancing Guidelines 6 steps 1. Feed a blend of high quality fermentable feeds and physically effective fiber to maximize synthesis of VFA and microbial protein 2. Feed adequate but not excessive levels of RDP to meet rumen bacterial requirements for AA and ammonia to allow for maximum CHO digestion and synthesis of microbial protein

16 Factors affecting RDP requirements 1) Intake and mixture of fermentable carbohydrates 2) Quality of RDP (relative supplies of protein, free AA and ammonia and rate of degradation) Fermentable carbohydrates RDP Microbial protein VFA’s

17 Practical Amino Acid balancing Guidelines 6 steps 1. Feed a blend of high quality fermentable feeds and physically effective fiber to maximize synthesis of VFA and microbial protein 2. Feed adequate but not excessive levels of RDP to meet rumen bacterial requirements for AA and ammonia to allow for maximum CHO digestion and synthesis of microbial protein 3. Feed high-Lys protein supplements or a combination of high-Lys protein supplements and a RPLYS supplement to achieve a level of Lys in MP that comes close to meeting the optimal concentration

18 Current knowledge regarding optimum AA concentrations in MP Whitehouse et al. (2013) ModelLysineMethionine Optimal Lys/Met ratio NRC (2001), revised CPM-Dairy AMTS v

19 LysMetHisLysMetHis Tissue6.3Brewer’s grains4.1 Milk7.7Canola meal5.6 Bacteria7.9Corn DDGS2.2 Corn gluten feed2.7 Ideal7.2Corn gluten meal1.7 Cotton seed4.3 Alfalfa silage4.4Linseed meal3.7 Corn silage2.5Soybean meal6.3 Grass silage3.3 Blood meal9.0 Barley3.6Feather meal2.6 Corn2.8Fish meal7.7 Wheat2.8 Meat meal5.4 Lys and Met in lean tissue, milk, rumen bacteria and feedstuffs (% of protein), relative to predicted optimum concentrations in MP

20 Commercially available RP-Lys supplements in the United States Lys supplements AjiPro-L AminoShure-L LysiPEARL Lysine 35 Megamine-L MetaboLys USA Lysine

21 Practical Amino Acid balancing Guidelines 6 steps 1. Feed a blend of high quality fermentable feeds and physically effective fiber to maximize synthesis of VFA and microbial protein 2. Feed adequate but not excessive levels of RDP to meet rumen bacterial requirements for AA and ammonia to allow for maximum CHO digestion and synthesis of microbial protein 3. Feed high-Lys protein supplements or a combination of high-Lys protein supplements and a RPLYS supplement to achieve a level of Lys in MP that comes close to meeting the optimal concentration 4. Feed a “rumen-protected” Met supplement in amounts “needed” to achieve optimum Lys/Met ratio in MP…then fine tune for maximal milk protein concentrations

22 Current knowledge regarding optimum AA concentrations in MP Whitehouse et al. (2013) ModelLysineMethionine Optimal Lys/Met ratio NRC (2001), revised CPM-Dairy AMTS v

23 LysMetHisLysMetHis Tissue6.31.8Brewer’s grains Milk7.72.7Canola meal Bacteria7.92.6Corn DDGS Corn gluten feed Ideal7.22.5Corn gluten meal Cotton seed Alfalfa silage4.41.4Linseed meal Corn silage2.51.5Soybean meal Grass silage Blood meal Barley3.61.7Feather meal Corn2.82.1Fish meal Wheat Meat meal Lys and Met in lean tissue, milk, rumen bacteria and feedstuffs (% of protein), relative to predicted optimum concentrations in MP

24 Commercially available ruminant AA supplements in the United States Lys supplementsMet supplements AjiPro-L LysiPEARL Lysine 35 Megamine-L MetaboLys USA Lysine Smartamine M ® Mepron ® M85 AminoShure-M MetiPEARL MetaSmart ® (HMBi) Alimet ® Rhodimet AT 88 ® MFP™ (CaMHA)

25 Practical Amino Acid balancing Guidelines 6 steps 1. Feed a blend of high quality fermentable feeds and physically effective fiber to maximize synthesis of VFA and microbial protein 2. Feed adequate but not excessive levels of RDP to meet rumen bacterial requirements for AA and ammonia to allow for maximum CHO digestion and synthesis of microbial protein 3. Feed high-Lys protein supplements or a combination of high-Lys protein supplements and a RPLYS supplement to achieve a level of Lys in MP that comes close to meeting the optimal concentration 4. Feed a “rumen-protected” Met supplement in amounts “needed” to achieve optimum Lys/Met ratio in MP…then fine tune for maximal milk protein concentrations 5. Limit RUP supplementation to what the “cows say” is needed…reductions of 1 to 2 percentage units of DM are common

26 How much supplemental RUP do you feed? Factors affecting RUP requirements (all of which we never quite know): 1)Intestinal supply of microbial protein 2)RUP digestibility 3)RUP-Lys digestibility* 4)Concentrations of Lys and Met in MP*

27 Effect of Lys and Met in MP on amounts of MP and RUP required to provide 180 g MP-Lys and 60 g MP-Met Lys in MP 1 (%) MP required 1 (g/d) Microbial MP 1 (g/d) Endog. MP 1 (g/d) Required MP from RUP (g/d) Required RUP 2 (g/d) Required RUP 3 (% DM) 5.7/ / / / / NRC (2001) was used as model of choice. Ration was balanced for 40.9 kg of 3.2% protein milk. MP required = 2857 g 2 Assumed an average RUP digestibility of 80% 3 DM intake assumed to be 25.5 kg

28 Practical Amino Acid balancing Guidelines 6 steps 1. Feed a blend of high quality fermentable feeds and physically effective fiber to maximize synthesis of VFA and microbial protein 2. Feed adequate but not excessive levels of RDP to meet rumen bacterial requirements for AA and ammonia to allow for maximum CHO digestion and synthesis of microbial protein 3. Feed high-Lys protein supplements or a combination of high-Lys protein supplements and a RPLYS supplement to achieve a level of Lys in MP that comes close to meeting the optimal concentration 4. Feed a “rumen-protected” Met supplement in amounts “needed” to achieve optimum Lys/Met ratio in MP…then fine tune for maximal milk protein concentrations 5. Limit RUP supplementation to what the “cows” say is needed…reductions of 1 to 2 percentage units of DM are common 6. Monitor His levels in MP closely

29 LysMetHisLysMetHis Tissue Brewer’s grains Milk Canola meal Bacteria Corn DDGS Corn gluten feed Ideal Corn gluten meal Cotton seed Alfalfa silage Linseed meal Corn silage Soybean meal Grass silage Blood meal Barley Feather meal Corn Fish meal Wheat Meat meal Lys and Met in lean tissue, milk, rumen bacteria and feedstuffs (% of protein), relative to predicted optimum concentrations in MP

30 Is His limiting after Lys and Met? IngredientsAdequate MP Deficient MP Corn silage40.2 Alfalfa haylage Grass hay5.8 Cottonseed hulls1.1 Corn grain, ground Bakery by-product meal7.4 Roasted whole soybeans Canola meal, mechanically extracted Soy Plus Molasses4.2 AMPDMP % of DM RDP RUP CP Lee et al. (2012)

31 Is His limiting after Lys and Met? Lee et al. (2012) AMPDMPDMPLMDMPLMHP value DM intake, kg/d Milk, kg/d38.8 a 35.2 b 36.9 ab 38.5 a <0.01 Milk protein, % Milk protein, g/d1130 a 1010 b 1100 a 1140 a <0.01 Milk fat, % Milk fat, g/d MUN, mg/dl13.0 a 10.3 bc 10.1 c 11.1 b <0.01 BUN, mg/dl11.5 a 6.8 b 7.6 b 8.0 b <0.01

32 Benefits of increasing Lys and Met in MP to more adequate levels 1) Increased milk component concentrations No longer uncommon to hear reports of increases in milk protein concentrations of 0.20 to 0.25 percentage units and increases in milk fat concentrations of 0.10 to 0.15 percentage units…often on less dietary RUP. Increases in milk protein percentages are the most visible of the responses to better AA nutrition…”the tip of the iceberg”! You don’t have to accept low components because of high production

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34 Benefits of increasing Lys and Met in MP to more adequate levels 1) Increased milk component concentrations 2) Increased milk yield…particularly in early lactation cows Early studies indicated 2 to 5 lb more milk in early lactation…more recent studies have shown 5 to 10 lb more milk

35 Milk yield responses to feeding RP-Lys or RP-Lys + Met to early lactation cows in 15 experiments

36 Benefits of increasing Lys and Met in MP to more adequate levels 1) Increased milk component concentrations 2) Increased milk yield…particularly in early lactation cows Early studies indicated 2 to 5 lb more milk in early lactation…more recent studies have shown 5 to 10 lb more milk Increased milk yields in early lactation may or may not be accompanied by increases in milk protein percentages if levels of Lys and Met in MP are not pushed high enough If you see an increase in milk protein percentage, assume at least some increase in milk yield!

37 Benefits of increasing Lys and Met in MP to more adequate levels 1) Increased milk component concentrations 2) Increased milk yield…particularly in early lactation cows 3) Reduced requirement for RUP for similar or higher milk milk component levels and milk yields

38 Benefits of increasing Lys and Met in MP to more adequate levels 1) Increased milk component concentrations 2) Increased milk yield…particularly in early lactation cows 3) Reduced requirement for RUP for similar or higher milk milk component levels and milk yields 4) More predictable changes in milk production to changes in RUP supply 5) Less metabolic disorders 6) INCREASED HERD PROFITABILITY

39 Transition Cows Feed intake does not keep pace with nutritional needs Some important metabolic changes: 1) Fat and protein mobilization (and other nutrients) 2) BW loss and usually dramatic increases in plasma NEFA 3) Increased uptake of FA by the liver (often in amounts that exceed capacity for oxidation) 4) Increased ketone production (ketosis) 5) Increased storage of TG in the liver (fatty liver) 6) Reduced liver function (e.g., depressed glucose production) 7) Increased inflammation [characterized by an increase in production of posAPP (e.g., haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) and a decrease in the production of negAPP (e.g., albumin)]. The trigger for these responses are the pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-1 and TNF-α) 8) Increased oxidative stress…the result of an imbalance between production of ROM and the neutralizing capacity of antioxidant mechanisms

40 Negative impacts of ketosis and fatty liver Increased risk for herd removal (3x) (McArt et al., 2012) Increased risk for displaced abomasum (2.6x to 19.3x in 3 studies) (early detection and treatment of subclinical ketosis with oral propylene glycol reduces risk) Increased risk for metritris (2.3x to 3.4x in 2 studies) Impaired fertility – results are inconsistent (early detection and treatment of subclinical ketosis with oral propylene glycol increases first service conception) Obvious economic impact on herd profitability! Oetzel, 2012

41 Fatty Liver 50-60% of cows experience moderate to severe fatty liver…peak fat content is about 10 days after calving “Fatty liver is a classic symptom for choline deficiency, therefore it is reasonable to question if transition cows are typically deficient in choline” (Grummer, 2012) Question: Might it also be reasonable to question if a Met deficiency, or AA deficiencies in general, contribute to fatty livers since protein synthesis is a fundamental initial step to virtually every metabolic reaction?

42 Findings regarding protein metabolism of transition cows The RUP requirements of post-fresh transition cows are higher than at any other time within their lactation An evaluation of dry cow diets with NRC (2001) and research experiments both indicate most post-fresh transition cows within a herd will experience deficiencies of MP (100 to 600 g/d) (3 to 15 kg milk) Shortages of MP are extremely variable among transition cows (contributing factors are on DIM, DMI and milk yield, health status, etc.) Conclusion: Conclusion: First 2-3 wk of lactation clearly challenges the AA status of the cow. So…the question is “How important is it to balance diets of transition cows for AA?”

43 Benefits of higher levels of Lys and Met in MP for transition cows Higher DM intake More milk and higher protein milk Energy balance and NEFA usually not affected However, evidence exists the liver is healthier: Fat doesn’t accumulate as fast (Osorio et al., 2013) Evidence of greater VLDL synthesis (Bauchart et al., 1992; Osorio et al., 2013) Pathways associated with carbohydrate metabolism are significantly impacted (e.g., gluconeogenesis) (Osorio et al., 2013) Decreased plasma ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A, and increased total antioxidants and glutathione (antioxidant) (Osorio et al., submitted) Met supplementation, in the presence of high Lys, appears to reduce the inflammatory state after calving

44 Milk yield responses to feeding RP-Lys or RP-Lys + Met to early lactation cows in 15 experiments

45 Benefits of higher levels of Lys and Met in MP for transition cows Higher DM intake More milk and higher protein milk Energy balance and NEFA usually not affected New evidence indicates the liver and cow are healthier: Fat doesn’t accumulate as fast (Osorio et al., 2013) Greater VLDL synthesis (Bauchart et al., 1992; Osorio et al., 2013) Pathways associated with carbohydrate metabolism are significantly impacted (e.g., gluconeogenesis) (Osorio et al., 2013) Decreased plasma ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A, and increased total antioxidants and glutathione (antioxidant) (Osorio et al., submitted) These studies indicate that Met supplementation, in the presence of high Lys, enhanced the antioxidant capacity and reduced the inflammatory signaling in the liver

46 Advances in Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition Diet evaluation and ration formulation models are getting better in predicting RDP, RUP and AA supplies to the cow NRC (2001) and Formulate II Spartan AMTS.Cattle and NDS Professional (both use CNCPS v.6.1 biology) Nittany Cow Ration Evaluator Feed testing labs are providing more information Estimates of digestibility (NDF, starch, RUP, etc.) More chemical components (lactic acid, VFA, sugars, AA, etc.) More commercial sources of RP-Met and Lys supplements Only way to meet “really” meet Met requirements Easier to meet Lys requirements Gaining appreciation for differences in efficacy of products More precise protein nutrition healthier cows + more milk + higher component milk + lower CP feeding

47 Summary and Conclusions 1. Protein nutrition has evolved from balancing rations for CP to balancing for RDP, RUP and AA in MP 2. Cows require AA for tissue and protein synthesis 3. AA balancing is important for optimizing usage of “bypass protein” and maximizing milk and milk component synthesis, transition cow health, and dairy herd profitability 4. Choose protein and AA supplements carefully 5. As expected, health and production impacts are greatest in early lactation cows, whereas benefits on RUP sparing are greatest in cows after peak DM intake


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