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We will start shortly… Leakage Detection for Toxic Chemicals Presented by: Riccardo Belli – PLM Distributed Sensing.

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Presentation on theme: "We will start shortly… Leakage Detection for Toxic Chemicals Presented by: Riccardo Belli – PLM Distributed Sensing."— Presentation transcript:


2 We will start shortly…

3 Leakage Detection for Toxic Chemicals Presented by: Riccardo Belli – PLM Distributed Sensing

4 Web Seminar You should hear my voice through your PC speaker / headset You can ask questions using the “Questions” panel on the right of your screen. We will answer: –In the “Questions” Panel –At the end of the presentation –By email Later this week you will receive link to: –Presentation in PowerPoint, PDF and with narration –Datasheets

5 Contents Context – motivations Fiber optic sensors Technology Leakage detection Application examples System reliability – Level of confidence Questions and answers

6 Context – motivations for leakage detection Context

7 1966. Feyzin (France) - Explosion of 2 propane storage tanks -18 deaths and 84 injured 1976. Seveso (Italy) - Toxic cloud carrying dioxine - 4 villages covered by the cloud - About 37 000 people impacted (no immediate deaths) Historical dates of industrial accidents

8 1984. Bhopal (India) - Explosion of 40 tons of toxic gas (isocyanate of méthyl) - 8 000 deaths the first night - 16 000 and 30 000 deaths 2001. Toulouse (France) - Explosion of the fertilizer plant AZF - 30 deaths - 3 000 injured - Destruction of infrastructures and housings

9 Historical dates of industrial accidents 2010. Ajka Alumina (Hungary) -Release of 600 000 tons of red muds (arsenic, mercury and lead) spilled from open air storage tanks -9 deaths and 200 injured -Critical environnemental damage (soils and rivers)

10 Reglementation The reglementation (SEVESO II) focus on the prevention of major accidents on industrial sites such as fire, explosion or release of toxic gases. In this framework, the industrial site owner builds up a risk analysis in order to identify all the accidents which can occur, to evaluate their probability, gravity, and cinetic and to implement the appropriate prevention measures. The leakage detection acts as a safety barrier allowing to reduce the risks at source.

11 Technology of Distributed Sensors FO Distributed Technology

12 T, ε Scattering of light Scattering medium Laser, o Optical Scattering in Silica Fibers

13 T1T1 Reading Unit Distributed Sensor 0m 1m 100m 1000m 30km T1T1 T2T2 T2T2 Position [m] Temp. [°C] Distributed sensing

14  Single fiber optic sensor (sensing cable)  Every segment (1 - 2 meter long) of sensing cable replaces discrete temperature sensor  Complete temperature profile over the entire cable obtained by single scan (10 seconds)  Provides for location of the temperature event (1 – 2 meter accuracy) Distributed sensing

15 Advantages of Fiber Optic Sensors  EM fields immunity  Installable in explosive areas  Small size and lightweight, easy to install, low maintenance  Durability and reliability of sensors  High sensitivity to temperature (0.1°C)  Permanent monitoring  Long measurement range (several kilometers)  Quick response time (10 seconds)  Software adaptable to various operation conditions, climatic conditions  Cost-effective

16 Leakage detection principle : Temperature anomalies analysis Working principle

17 Leakage Detection  Temperature profiling along pipelines/storages  Leakage detection through temperature anomalies analysis at the leakage point  Change of the cable temperature due to liquefied gas relaxation  Cooling due to gas expansion  Change of the cable temperature due to liquid spilling  High sensitivity for the detection of micro-leakages  Identification of the leakage location with 1 – 2 m resolution.

18 Liquefied gas (Ammoniac, CO2, Ethylene…) High pressure gas (natural gas) leak temperature effects warming cooling Oil or hot liquid pipelines T/ °C time T/ °C time Pipeline Leakage Detection

19 Sensing fibre cable Leakage is detected by the temperature difference induced by the presence of the released fluid on the sensing cable (temperature of the liquid different from the ambient cable temperature) Temperature Position Leakage Leakage Detection - liquid

20 Sensing fibre cable Leakage is detected by the temperature drop of the gas induced by the decompression of the leaking gas caused by the Joule- Thompson effect (pressure relaxation to atmospheric pressure  cooling) Temperature Position Leakage Leakage Detection - gas

21 Temperature Sensor cable Range of monitoring up to dozens of kilometers Temperature accuracy: 0.1° C Spatial Resolution: 1 meter Response time: 10 seconds Permanent monitoring Leakage detection software Remote monitoring via Ethernet Distributed temperature sensor (cable) Rugged, watertight, corrosion resistant Low/High temperature and shock resistant Insensitive to EM fields Easy and rapid to install Reading unit System components

22 N° of sensors: up to 4 Multi Mode optical fibres per cable Cross-section: 3.8 mm with PA sheath Cable weight: 22 kg/km with PA sheath Temperature range: -55°C to +85°C in long-term -65°C to +300°C in short-term -60°C to +85°C storage Mechanically reinforced temperature cable Temperature sensors

23  Alarms can be triggered on the reading unit or on the database  User can set various actions to communicate an alarm: ex. email, relay control, text message, etc. Warning!!! – Temperature event at 430m E-mailSMSRelay/ModbusNetwork Alarm software

24  Alarms triggers if absolute temperature is exceeded : suitable for situation in very stable environment Ambient Temperature very stable Alarm triggered if pipeline leaks and temperature drops Time Temperature at point (x) Temperature at time (t) Length along cable Leak triggers alarm Absolute temperature - alarm

25 Alarms triggers if rate of change is exceeded : suitable for dynamic but predictable environment Typical temperature drop = 0.05 °C/min Max normal temperature = 40°C Absolute temperature alarm set to 60°C 10 40 Night time temp Time Temperature at time t Max day temperature 24 hours Rate of change - alarm

26 Dams Dikes DiView graphical user interface

27 Application Examples Application examples

28  Leakage detection of an ammonia rack pipeline in a fertilizer production plant  Yara Italy – Norwegian world leading supplier of plant nutrients in the form of mineral fertilizer Ammonia pipeline monitoring

29  2.200 meters of ammonia rack pipeline  Material: carbon steel  Diameter: 2” & 4”  Working pressure: 16,5 bar  Design pressure: 20 bar at max 50°C  The ammonia inside the pipeline is in liquefied state. In case of leakage, the ammonia goes out at atmospheric pressure both in liquid and gas states at approximately - 30° C  The aim of the monitoring is to detect leakages by continuous temperature monitoring Rack pipeline outline

30 DiTemp DTS-SR inside the Control Room 2 X JB with splice Main JB 2 X JB with splice 1 X Junction Box 1 X Installation layout

31 LINEALARMN°DETAILS FROMTOSET (meter(meter)°C GREEN LINE TKA 100/1 1Alarm at low temperature120300-5 2Alarm at low temperature300565-5 3Alarm delta T previous measure120300-12 4Alarm delta T previous measure300565-12 BLUE LINE TKA 100/2 5Alarm at low temperature1'0201'300-5 6Alarm at low temperature1'3001'670-5 7Alarm delta T previous measure1'0201'300-12 8Alarm delta T previous measure1'3001'670-12 RED LINE TKA 100/3 9Alarm at low temperature2'3252'500-5 10Alarm at low temperature2'5002'800-5 11Alarm at low temperature2'8003'150-5 12Alarm at low temperature3'1503'420-5 13Alarm delta T previous measure2'3252'500-12 14Alarm delta T previous measure2'5002'800-12 15Alarm delta T previous measure2'8003'150-12 16Alarm delta T previous measure3'1503'420-12 Fault TKA 100Alarm for faulty system Alarm threshold

32 Temperature response over the monitored part of the pipeline measured during the setup of the system Temperature distribution

33 Leakage simulation on ammonia rack in France  From storage tank to truck and wagon loading arms : 900 meters  Material: carbon steel  Diameter: 6”  Working pressure: 8 bar  Outside temperature : 0°C  Nominal flow : 100 tons / hour  Optical cable located below the pipeline Ammonia pipeline monitoring

34 2 tests were achieved by spilling ammonia on the pipeline : Test 1 : 1 kg of ammoniac over 1 meter over 1 minute (equivalent to 0.06 % of the nominal flow) Test 2 : 0.5 kg of ammonia over 0.5 meter over 1 minute (equivalent to 0.03 % of the nominal flow) Leakage simulation

35 Detection of micro leakages (less than 0.1 % of the flow), attenuation of transient phenoma (pumps) Test 1 Test 2 pumps start Threshold for leakage detection Data after treatment by suitable algorithm Test results

36 System reliability Confidence System reliability

37 If red sensing cable is broken the DTS will still measure either side of the break. The blue sensing cable will still measure the entire pipeline length. If blue sensing cable breaks the DTS will still measure either side of the break If one DTS fails, the redundant DTS stills operates DTS Redundancy

38 Based on the « proven by experience » approach A combination of redundant architecture & tests allow a SIL equivalence: –Redundancy: two/three interrogators and cables –Voting systems (1oo2 or 2oo3) –Positive security –Regular test on the line (ex : with CO2 bottle) –Regular maintenance SIL equivalence

39  Distributed Fiber Optic sensing is a novel, but well proven technology to detect toxic chemicals leakages in industrial sites (SEVESO classified)  It offers unprecedented sensitivity to detect very small leaks in a few seconds and allows the localization of the leak with meter accuracy, which cannot be detected by conventional techniques  Appropriate architecture and testing program guarantee a high level of confidence to the system  The deployment of such system has been carried out successfully in a number of reference and qualification projects worldwide General conclusions

40 Thank you! Any question? Safety first Conclusions – Leakage detection

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