Sidestream Characteristics 1. Concentrated Nutrient Loads constituting 15-25% of TN. Ammonia: 500-1500mg/L 2. Low Alkalinity: Typically contains 50% alkalinity needed for nitrification of ammonia 3. Relatively low BOD/COD 4. Small Flows – often intermittent and resulting in high peak load to the mainstream process. 5. Can change characteristics of influent impacting sensitive biological processes and varying demand for chemical dose.
Why consider sidestream treatment? A plant can often reuse existing infrastructure to reduce project costs. Treatment is usually economical when sidestreams contribute greater than 15% of TN load.
Treatment Alternatives Available BiologicalPhysico-Chemical BioaugmentationCoagulant Aided Precipitation In-Nitri BABEStruvite Precipitation NYC at 3Ostara MaureenMFH Nitritation/DenitritationProcorp/DHV SHARONPaques Deammonification ANAMMOXAmmonia Stripping DEMON CLEAR Green ANITA-MoxIon Exchange
Deammonification Benefits of Deammonification vs Conventional Nitrification/Denitrification Aeration energy savings from 55-60% 100% Savings BOD/COD. i.e. No carbon needed for nitrogen removal Net consumer of CO 2 vs release of CO 2 with conventional Alkalinity demand reduced by 45% (no additional alkalinity required) Reduction in solids production
Deammonification-unusual metabolism Type of Bacteria Common Reaction Name Carbon Source Electron Donor (substrate oxidized) Electron Accepter Products Aerobic Heterotroph ic Aerobic oxidation Organic compounds OxygenCO 2, H 2 O Aerobic autotrophic NitrificationCO 2 NH 4+, NO 2- OxygenNO 2-, NO 3- Facultative Heterotroph ic Denitrificati on/anoxic reaction Organic compounds Organic Compounds NO 2-, NO3-N 2, CO 2, H 2 O Obligate Chemolitho autotrophic Anammox/d eammonific ation CO 2 NH 4+ NO 2- N 2, NO 3-, H 2 O
What is Deammonification Conventional Nitrification/Denitrification NH 4 -N is oxidized under aerobic conditions to NO 2 -N or NO 3 -N by autotrophic bacteria, and then the NO 2 -N or NO 3 -N is reduced to N 2 under anoxic conditions, with the consumption of organic substances by heterotrophic bacteria.
Deammonification Technologies DEMON™ANITA Mox™Cleargreen™ ANAMMOX TM Reactor ConfigurationSBR with HydrocycloneMBBRSBR Biomass characteristicFlocBiofilmFlocgranular Control ParameterspH, NH4 LoadingPh, NH4 LoadingNH4 Loading, aeration Power Consumption (kWh/kg N) 1.161.45-1.75 Design Loading (kg N/m3-d) 0.7-0.81.2-2.0 Technology ProviderWorld Water WorksVeolia/Kruger Degremont Paques
ANNAMOX TM vs Conventional Conventional Treatment ANAMMOX Power3-51-2kWh/kg N Methanol2.5-30kg/kg N Sludge Production0.5-10.1kg VSS/kg N CO2 Emissions>4.70.7kg/kg N Total Costs4-61-3$/kg N
Deammonification Characteristics Slow growth rate: Double every 10-11 days Growth RatePopulation after 11 days Anammox11 days1.0*2 1 =2 Nitrobacter13 hours1.0 *2 20 =1,050,000 Nitrosomomas7 hours1.4*2 38 =138,000,000,000 E. Coli17 minutes1.0*2 931
Deammonification Characteristics Requirements to favor growth of deammonifiers: -Maintain long SRT. Retain the right bacteria (selective wasting) -Temperature control -pH control -DO Control -Free ammonia control -Limit available carbon (BOD)
Process Configurations DEMON (World Water Works) Sequencing Batch Reactor: - Acronym for DEamMONification -Includes a hydrocyclone to separate granual anammox bacteria from the floc-forming AOBs and NOBs -The heavier anammox are returned to the reactor, the flocs are separated and wasted. -This allows the system to control the accumulation of NOBs and stabilize performance.
AnitaMox A single stage deammonification MBBR by Veolia. Media with protected surface area for biofilm growth of 1,200 m 2 /m 3 Volumetric ammonium-N removal rate of up to 1.2kg-N/m 3.day with a 40% media fill and temperature range of 27-30 0 C
Summary Deammonification has been found to be: -Technically and economically feasible -Several technology options have been tested and commercialized -More than 50 Full size deammonification units have been constructed since first full scale in 2001.
Deammonification and Humboldt Candidates: Cities of Fortuna, Eureka, Arcata. Compelling Factors: Regulatory: Fortuna: Surface Discharge facing stringent nutrient removal Eureka, Arcata: Ocean and Bay discharge. No current nutrient regulations. Future regulation? Example JWPCB of the LACSD Cost: Evaluation of cost/benefits of collaboration?
JWPCP Joint Water Pollution Control Plant -One of the largest wwtp in the world -Permitted capacity 400 mgd -Population served approx 3.5 mm -Discharge outfalls 1.5 miles off Palos Verdes peninsula to depth of 200ft.