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Presentation on theme: "Commodity Products CHEMICAL PRODUCT ENGINEERING ASEP MUHAMAD SAMSUDIN."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chemical Products Category of Product Class of ProductExampleKey Attribute Specialty chemicalsSurfactantAmmonium lauryl sulfate Molecular structure Formulated products CosmeticExfoliating gelMicrostructure Bio-based conceptsDrugAlendronate sodium Biological activity DevicesBiomedical deviceBlood oxygenatorMaterials and assembly Virtual chemical products Software to simulate chemical processes Aspen PlusComputational performance Technology-based consumer goods Health care consumer goods Disposable diaperMaterials and assembly R. Costa and G. D. Moggridge R. Costa, G. D. Moggridge, P. M. Saraiva. Chemical Product Engineering: An Emerging Paradigm Within Chemical Engineering. AIChE Journal, 52 (2006) :1979

3 Chemical Products CommoditiesChemical DevicesMolecular Products Microstructures Products ExamplesEthylene, ammoniaArtificial kidneysPenicillinSunscreen ScaleContinuumMetersNanometersMicrometers KeyCostConvenienceDiscoveryFunction BasisReaction Engineering, Unit operations ChemistryRecipe RiskFeedstockIntellectual PropertyDiscoveryScience Cussler and Moggridge Cussler EL, Moggridge GD. Chemical product design. 2 nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011. Based on the characteristic size scale which is critical to their performance

4 Critical size of Chemical Products

5 Commodity Products  The core of the chemical industry. Simple molecules produced in large quantities (over 10,000 tons/year) at the lowest possible cost.  Fewer than 50 of the more than 30,000,000 compounds which are known.  The molecular weights are typically less than 100 daltons.  The king of these product is liquid fuel: gasoline, petrol, diesel  The key chemical and physical properties of the commodity products : key scale, chemical reactivities and volatilities.  We can use the same design template of needs, ideas, selection and manufacture to improve manufacturing itself.



8 Product Design Procedures Cussler & Moggridge, 2011

9 Example 1 Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen  Needs  A product purity above 95%.  An amount over 10,000 tons/year.  Price already defined by the market.  A production cost perhaps 20% less than the price

10 Example 1 Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen  Ideas  Derive from the four step outline suggested by Douglas (1988) Batch Vs. Continuous Process Inputs and OutputsReactors and Recycles Separation and Heat Integration

11 Example Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen

12  Third: recognize that this process will not involve complete reaction  For the conventional Haber process, only get perhaps 20% conversion.  The process must have a reactor followed by some sort of separator.

13 Example Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen  Fourth: Douglas suggests more detailed identification of separation required.  The gases from the reactor are chilled to 10 o C to condense liquid ammonia, and the non-condensables are recycled.  Part of this recycle is purged to get rid of the argon.  Significant amounts of nitrogen and hydrogen dissolve in the liquid ammonia.  One the pressure is released (to about 20 bar), the dissolved gases can be removed by simple distillation for recycle and recompression.

14 Example Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen  IDEAS. 1. Seek better catalyst. 2. Get rid the argon and so not waste the hydrogen and nitrogen necessarily discarded with the purge. 3. Invent a better, more selective separation

15 Example Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen  SELECTION  The catalyst, the firs area for study, has received the greatest effort. The original Iron oxides used by Haber as catalyst.  The activity of catalyst can be enhanced by trace quantities of many metals, especially ruthenium.  Removing argon, which is the second area of interest, would certainty possible by liquefying air and distilling off the nitrogen. While the separation of argon from oxygen is difficult because the difference in boiling points is so small.  We can infer that this distillation is too expensive, costing much more than purging the argon and wasting some nitrogen and hydrogen.

16 Example Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen  SELECTION  We may decide to focus on the third area, a better separation of ammonia from the other gases.  We may select three good idea : A membrane 100 times more permeable to ammonia than to nitrogen and hydrogen at room temperature  A similar membrane selective and stable at reactors temperature  An adsorbent selective for ammonia at reactor conditions.

17 Example Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen  MANUFACTURE


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