Presentation on theme: "Contents What? Why? Origin of Haber process Production of Ammonia now Uses(Applications) of Ammonia."— Presentation transcript:
Contents What? Why? Origin of Haber process Production of Ammonia now Uses(Applications) of Ammonia
WHAT IS IT? HABER PROCESS is to produce ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. N 2 + 3H 2 NH 3
Origin German Chemist Fritz Haber found this process at the beginning of the 20 th century, right before WWI. Before that Germany imported nitrates from South America, but the demand of Nitrates increased before the war.
Origin During WWI, Allies blocked all the trade routes of Nitrates to Germany, but Germany was still able to produce fertilizers and explosives because of the Haber process.
Compressor Gases mixed & scrubbed N 2 & H 2 Catalyst Condenser Liquid NH 3
Obtain hydrogen Most hydrogen now is produced from “Steam- Methane Reforming”, methane is reacted with high-temperature steam(under high pressure) to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen. CH 4 + H 2 O (+heat) → CO + 3H 2
Obtain hydrogen After that the carbon monoxide is combined with steam (+catalyst) and carbon dioxide and hydrogen. CO + H 2 O → CO 2 + H 2 (+heat)
Obtaining hydrogen Electrolysis is also used to obtain hydrogen, but greenhouse gas is produced from burning fossil fuels to make electricity, so this method is less common compared to “Steam-Methane Reforming”.
Obtaining Nitrogen Nitrogen is obtained from the air. (of course) Air is cooled to ≈-200 o C, then fractionally distilled.
Nitric Acid Ammonia is reacted with Oxygen (catalyst platinum-rhodium gauze) to produce nitrogen dioxide and water. The nitrogen dioxide is then dissolved in water (with air)
Nitric acid eqns 4NH 3 + 7O 2 4NO 2 + 6H 2 O 4NO 2 + 2H 2 O + O 2 4HNO 3
Fertilizers To make fertilizers, nitrates are required. There are two types of fertilizer, straight-N & NPK fertilizers.
Fertilizers Example of Straight N fertilizer is Ammonium Nitrate. Ammonia + Nitric Acid => Ammonium Nitrate
Importance? today Some people say Haber process and ammonia is the most important invention or the past few hundred years But others say that contact process is the most important.
According to Mr. Ed (last year’s chemistry teacher) Sulfuric acid is the “KING OF CHEMICALS” So Haber process comes in 2 nd
Sources Keroball Ammoniahttp://www.dicts.info/picture- dictionary.php?group=&w=ammonia&search=Search&language=englishhttp://www.dicts.info/picture- dictionary.php?group=&w=ammonia&search=Search&language=english Fertilizer HNO3 History production/history-of-the-haber-processhttp://www.easychem.com.au/monitoring-and-management/maximising- production/history-of-the-haber-process Electrolysis Gas reforming Background pictures from euro truck simulator 2 And Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry Course book