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Fate of Ammonia Unit -0 By Dr. Abdulrahman Al-Ajlan.

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2 Fate of Ammonia Unit -0 By Dr. Abdulrahman Al-Ajlan

3 Fate of Ammonia  Ammonia, which is very toxic in the body, is converted to urea which is non toxic, very soluble and readily excreted by the kidneys. Particularly affects the central nervous system.  The level of ammonia in the blood must be kept low because even slightly elevated concentrations are toxic.

4 Sources of body ammonia  Ammonia is produced from the metabolism of a variety of compounds. 1.From amino acids. Many tissues, but particularly the liver, from ammonia from amino acids by the aminitrans ferase and glutamate dehydrogluase reactions.

5 Continue… 2.From glutamine  The kidneys from ammonia from glutamine by the action of renal glutamine.  Most of this ammonia is excreted into the urine as NH 4, which is an important acid–base balance.

6 Continue… 3.From bacterial action in the intestine  ammonia is formed by the bacterial degradation of urea in the lumen of the intestine.  Urea Bacterial NH3 Urease Urea + H 2 O Urease Co 2 + 2NH 3

7 Continue… 4.From amines :  Amins obtained from the diet and monoamines that serve as hormones or neuro transmitters give rise to ammonia by the action of amine oxidare 5.From purines and pyrimidines

8 Urea Cycle  One nitrogen of urea molecule is supplied by free NH 3 and the other nitrogen by aspartate  The carbon and oxygen of urea are derived from CO 2  Urea is produced by the liver and then is transported in the blood to the kidneys for excretion in the urine.

9 Urea formation  Most of NH 4 formed be deamination of amino acid in the liver is converted to urea, and the urea is excreted in the urine.  Except for the brain, the liver is probably the only site of urea formation, and in severe hepatic disease, the blood urea nitrogen level falls and the blood NH 3 level rises.  The synthesis of urea via the urea cycle involves the following cycle.


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