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How is This System Different From a Pond You Must.

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Presentation on theme: "How is This System Different From a Pond You Must."— Presentation transcript:

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3 How is This System Different From a Pond

4 You Must

5 Critical Environmental Parameters Concentrations Of: Concentrations Of: –Dissolved Oxygen –Un-ionized Ammonia-nitrogen –Nitrite-nitrogen Temperature Temperature

6 Other Important Environmental Considerations Nitrate Concentrations Nitrate Concentrations pH pH Alkalinity levels Alkalinity levels Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Chlorides Chlorides

7 Dissolved Oxygen Why Is It Important Fish Respiration Fish Respiration Bacteria Respiration Bacteria Respiration Waste Oxidation Waste Oxidation

8 How Much Oxygen Do You Need?

9 How Do We Maintain Dissolved Oxygen Levels Aeration Aeration –Air Stones –Mechanical Other Other –Pure Oxygen Gas –Liquid Oxygen –Oxygen Generators

10 Airstones

11 Downflow Bubble Contactor

12 Vertical Pump Aerator

13 What if Oxygen Levels Too Low ? Fish Stress Fish Stress Bacteria Go Anaerobic Bacteria Go Anaerobic CO2 and Ammonia levels become more critical CO2 and Ammonia levels become more critical

14 pH - What Is It ?

15 What Happens to pH In The Tank Tends to Fall Tends to Fall Effects Toxic Ammonia Levels Effects Toxic Ammonia Levels Tied to Alkalintiy Tied to Alkalintiy

16 pH - What Should It Be In Your Tank

17 How Do You Maintain Proper pH ? Maintain Correct Alkalinity Maintain Correct Alkalinity Water Changes Water Changes

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19 Ammonia Where Does It Come From?

20 Ammonia Exists in 2 Forms NH3 - Which is Toxic NH3 - Which is Toxic NH4 + - Which is relatively non-toxic NH4 + - Which is relatively non-toxic The balance of these two compounds depends on the temperature and pH of the tank water The balance of these two compounds depends on the temperature and pH of the tank water

21 NH3 NH4 + Equilibrium

22 NH3 NH4 + Shift

23 Ammonia Converted To Nitrite (Still Toxic)

24 Nitrite Conversion to Nitrate

25 How Can You Tell If Your Filter Is Working ?

26 What About Nitrates? Non toxic up to 300ppm Non toxic up to 300ppm Generally not a problem if water is changed regularly Generally not a problem if water is changed regularly Some is converted to nitrogen gas Some is converted to nitrogen gas

27 Temperature Different fish prefer different temperatures Different fish prefer different temperatures A 10 degree rise in temp doubles the metabolism of warm water fish - everything speeds up A 10 degree rise in temp doubles the metabolism of warm water fish - everything speeds up Remember affect on ammonia Remember affect on ammonia

28 Alkalinity - What Is It ? Measure of the total bases in water Measure of the total bases in water Buffering Capacity Buffering Capacity Ability of water to resist change Ability of water to resist change Main bases in water are carbonate and bi- carbonate Main bases in water are carbonate and bi- carbonate

29 Alkalinity Where Does It Come From Calcium Carbonate - CaCO 3 - Limestone Calcium Carbonate - CaCO 3 - Limestone Sodium Bicarbonate - Baking Soda Sodium Bicarbonate - Baking Soda

30 Alkalinity What Is It Used For ? Buffering Capacity Buffering Capacity Carbon is used bacteria during growth Carbon is used bacteria during growth Tends to decrease over time as it is incorporated into new bacteria Tends to decrease over time as it is incorporated into new bacteria

31 Alkalinity What Is A Good Level ppm ppm Can be increased by adding sodium bicarbonate Can be increased by adding sodium bicarbonate –rate of 10% of feed weight daily or as needed determined by testing Alkalinity is tied to pH Alkalinity is tied to pH Helps the system remain stable and controls pH drop Helps the system remain stable and controls pH drop

32 Carbon Dioxide Can build up in closed systems Can build up in closed systems Fish can take up to 60 ppm if there is adequate oxygen Fish can take up to 60 ppm if there is adequate oxygen Not usually a problem is system is aerated and has regular partial water exchanges Not usually a problem is system is aerated and has regular partial water exchanges

33 Chlorides Important in helping fish be resistant to nitrite toxicity Important in helping fish be resistant to nitrite toxicity Chloride levels should be at least 6x the nitrite levels Chloride levels should be at least 6x the nitrite levels Can increase chlorides if necessary by adding NON-Iodized Salt at a rate 1 tablespoon per gallons Can increase chlorides if necessary by adding NON-Iodized Salt at a rate 1 tablespoon per gallons

34 Water Quality For Best Growth

35 Recap Pay Attention Pay Attention Be Observant Be Observant Watch Do Levels Watch Do Levels Check Ammonia, pH, and Nitrite Regularly Check Ammonia, pH, and Nitrite Regularly Don’t Overfeed Don’t Overfeed

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