Presentation on theme: "Working Group 5 Nitrogen – integrated environmental policies."— Presentation transcript:
Working Group 5 Nitrogen – integrated environmental policies
The Working Group JW. Erisman, T. Spranger, MA. Sutton, M. Maione, S. Reis, H. Fagerli, HV. Anderson, L. Horvath, S. Amin-Hanjani, N. Hutchings, C. Akselsson. J.P. Hetteling, C. Stenby, HV., M. Havlikova, H. Harmens, Salim X., M. Maasikimets, K. Hicks, H. ApSimon
Why Nitrogen? The godfather of environmental pollutants… –A bit hidden –Drives several environmental problems –Contributes to many other issues. Nitrogen from many sources –Emphasizes the role of agriculture as source –Also the role of effects in agricultural areas Nitrogen is not fully addressed in any Convention
An approach to address nitrogen Established a framework to deal with N Framework is driven by the effects Effects Indicators Nitrogen Budgets Emissions
Direct Effects on Humans Direct effects on humansIndicatorsLimit?Link to N cascade Relevance and link to N Respiratory disease in people caused by exposure to high concentrations of: -- ozoneSOMO35YNOx emission3 -- other photochemical oxidants Org. NO3, PANNNOx emissions5 -- fine particulate aerosol PM10, PM2.5YNH3, NOx em1 -- direct toxicity of NO 2 NO2YNOx2 Nitrate contamination of drinking water NO3 conc (aq.)YNO3 leaching2 Increase allergenic pollen production, and several parasitic and infectious human diseases -N5 Blooms of toxic algae and decreased swimability of in- shore water bodies Chlorophyl A NO3 (P) NRun-off, Ndep1
Direct Effects on Ecosystems Direct effects on ecosystemsIndicatorsLimit?Link to N cascadeRelevance and link to N Ozone damage to crops, forests, and natural ecosystems AFstY (O3 flux), AOT40 YNOx em2 Acidification effects on forests, soils, ground waters, and aquatic ecosystems Critical loadsYNdep2 Eutrophication of freshwaters, lakes (incl. Biodiversity) BOD, NO3 Critical loads YNYN Run-off, Ndep3 Eutrophication of coastal ecosystems inducing hypoxia (incl. Biodiversity) BOD, NO3 Critical loads YNYN Run-off, Ndep1 Nitrogen saturation of soils (incl. effects on GHG balance) Critical loadsYNdep1 Biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems (incl. Pests and diseases) Critical loads, critical level (NH3) YNdep1
Effects on other societal values Direct effects on ecosystemsIndicatorsLimit?Link to N cascadeRelevance and link to N Odor problems associated with animal agriculture NH3NNH3 emission5 Effects on monuments and engineering materials Acidity prec., prec/T O3, PM YNOx, NH33 Regional hazes that decrease visibility at scenic vistas and airports PM2.5NNOx, NH34 (EU) Depletion of stratospheric ozone NOx, N2ON 3 Global climate warming induced by excess nitrogen N2O, CH4, CO2NN2O (dir, indir), CH4, CO2 1 Regional climate cooling induced by aerosol PM2.5NNOx, NH31
Nitrogen and the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution The multiple problems of nitrogen –Most are atmospheric, most are transboundary. –The Convention LRTAP is the right place. What is currently missing from the Convention? –Need to consider nitrate in water more strongly (not just natural ecosystems) –Incorporate interactions with nitrous oxide
Short Term Goals & Implementation (<5 yr) Tools are being developed already: –Emissions/Fluxes/Budgets GAINS/MITERRA/INTEGRATOR –Tools for effects indicator modelling, including biodiversity and climate change interaction Develop a monitoring strategy for the framework –Not just air (e.g. EMEP monitoring) –Also better monitoring of effects (inc biomonitoring), monitoring of calculated N balances (e.g. N surplus) Better stakeholder understanding –Dissemination, simplification –Guiding stakeholders to understand N effects
Long Term Goals (> 5 year) Dealing with the scale problem –An integrated approach and tools to generalize the implications of scale at the regional level. Strengthening the linkage of targets to effects –Need flexible solutions; can be hard to quantify as “national emissions” –Engage the agri-food chain more constructively (they are willing) – including “soft measures” –Need to set our targets as close as possible in relation to the target environmental effects (cf. WFD - good ecological status) Implement an adequate monitoring strategy –Biodiversity impacts, N budgets, N efficiency etc. –Linking existing monitoring activities.
Organizational/Institutional Issues CLRTAP should take the lead on integrated assessment towards sustainable N management: –provide a framework on integrated N –enhance integration and synergies between the existing bodies of the Convention relevant to the framework –draw from and link to other Conventions (UNECE Helsinki Convention on Waters, CBD, FCCC, UNECE Espoo Convention on Transboundary EIA): e.g. by establishing an (inter-)Convention WG –explore the possibilities of an integrated Nitrogen Protocol, possibly joint with other UNECE Conventions. –establish a stronger link with agricultural stakeholders (FAO, DG Agri, IFA, …) and effects related stakeholders. –utilize the knowledge, concepts, etc. developed within INI/NitroEurope IP/ACCENT/COST729/ESF-NinE etc.