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Air Emissions from Two Swine Finishing Buildings with Flushing: Ammonia Characteristics www.AgAirQuality.com Agricultural and Biological Engineering Purdue.

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Presentation on theme: "Air Emissions from Two Swine Finishing Buildings with Flushing: Ammonia Characteristics www.AgAirQuality.com Agricultural and Biological Engineering Purdue."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Emissions from Two Swine Finishing Buildings with Flushing: Ammonia Characteristics Agricultural and Biological Engineering Purdue University Al Heber, Pattie Tao, Teng Lim, Jiqin Ni, Purdue University; Amy Schmidt, University of Missouri

2 Swine Production Site in Northern Missouri Average Size of Farms

3 Heber, A.J., T.-T. Lim, P.C. Tao, J.-Q. Ni, A.M. Schmidt Control of air emissions from swine finishing buildings flushed with recycled lagoon effluent. ASAE Paper #  EPA Multi-State Consortium Animal Waste and Premium Standard Farms  Measured PM10, TSP, CH 4, NMHC, NH 3, H 2 S, CO 2, odor for 11 months at two barns.  Soybean Oil Sprinkling  Misting of Essential Oils  Misting of Essential Oils and Water Collaborative study by Purdue University and University of Missouri

4 Barn Inventory (Total Live Mass, AU) Trial 1: SOS Trial 2: SOS+ Doubled nozzles Trial 3: MEO Trial 4: MEOW Mean pig mass ~ 64 kg Mean barn inventory ~ 1,100 70% reduction

5 Treatment Effects on PM 10 TestnControlTreatedReduction Soybean oil sprinkling14313±33106±2767% Soybean oil sprinkling +8226±5975.4±3570% Misting of essential oils4326±101346±178N/S Misting of essential oils & water 20196±35230±27N/S All emission values in kg/day

6 Each site had 8 tunnel-ventilated finishing houses with flushing Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emission from Two Swine Finishing Barns with Long Term Continuous Measurement Barn 7 (control) Barn 8 (treated) J.Q. Ni, A.J. Heber, T.T. Lim, P.C. Tao, A. Longman Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN A.M. Schmidt University of Missouri, Columbia, MO Livestock Environmental Initiative Symposium, Mississauga, Ontario, CAN, Feb. 7-8.

7 Barn Layout and Sampling Locations Lab Met tower Relative humidity/temperature Air sampling Static pressure port Temperature sensor Barn 7Barn 8 N Fan stage # Summer air inlets 4 2 Floor plan (61 m x 13.2 m) Instrument shelter Small Propeller Anemometer (SPA) Adapted from Heber et al., 2002 Shallow pit with recycle flush Attic PensDiffusers Background air sampling Exhaust air 80% full of pigs 1-5

8 Real Time Display (Front View) Source: Ni, et al., 2005

9 Barn and Outdoor Temperatures

10 Barn Relative Humidity (Daily Means)

11 Small Propeller Anemometer Dr. Teng Lim Fan tester Fan Airflow Measurement Anemometer

12 Real Time Display (Floor Plan) Source: Ni, et al., 2005

13 Multi-Point Gas Sampling Filter Air sample To Lab Cal gas

14 Sampling controlData acquisition S12 P1 P2 M3 P3 F Analyzers Cal gases S1 M: manifold P: pump S: solenoid Sampling probes, m long C 6 H 14 /CH 4 CO 2 Zero air NH 3 H2SH2S NO 6-port diluter (5 L/min) p M2 M1 Flow restrictors Bypass pumping circuit Mass flow meter NH 3 H2SH2S CO 2 CH 4 /VOC 7.9/4.8 mm vinyl 22.2/15.9 mm vinyl 9.5 mm OD, 6.4 mm ID Teflon 9.5 mm OD, 6.4 mm ID Teflon 6.4 mm OD 3.2 mm ID vinyl Exhaust F f SO 2 6-port manifold Pressure sensor M4 Exhaust AB C F: filter F Cal gas circuit Bag fill port Jar P4 Rotameter Leak test circuit 1 1 P Pressure gage Air valve S13 S14 Barn 7 calibration Barn 8 calibration

15 Real Time & History Display (Flush) Source: Ni, et al., 2005

16 Flushing Peaks (no NH 3 response)

17 Barn Static Pressure and Airflow

18 Half of total capacity 19.2 m 3 /s 79.1% 54.6% 25% of total capacity 9.6 m 3 /s Cumulative Frequency Distribution of Hourly Mean Ventilation Rates 6661 hours 318,045,000 m m 3 /s 8.6 m 3 /s 22.5%

19 Daily Mean Ammonia Concentration

20 Cumulative Frequency Distribution of Hourly Mean Ammonia Concentration <23.6 ppm 75% of time <17.2 ppm 50% of time <9.6 ppm 25% time

21 Daily Mean Ammonia Emission (kg/d)

22 Daily Mean Ammonia Emission (g/d-pig)

23 Daily Mean Ammonia Emission (g/d-AU)

24 Correlation Table VariableAmmonia ConcentrationEmission rate Indoor temperature-0.71 * 0.30 * Outdoor temperature-0.82 * 0.23 * Pig activity0.57 * * Ventilation rate-0.78 * 0.26 * Total live mass-0.24 * 0.45 * *p<0.05

25 Pig Activity Signals (3 sensors/barn)

26 Daily Mean Activity-Induced Voltage COLDHOT

27 Winter Activity Pattern (1 peak per day) Summer Activity Pattern (2 peaks per day)

28 Effect of Pig Activity on TSP

29 Hourly NH 3 Emissions and Pig Activity Diurnal Patterns Activity Emissions G3, 2 peaks 12 o C 2.1 o C 21.5 o C G2, 1 peak G1, 2 peaks

30 Effect of Ambient Temperature on Diurnal Emission of Ammonia

31 NH 3 Emissions from Finishing Pigs (g/day-pig)  Dutch Standard6.8  Oesthook (1993)3-5  Kay & Lee (1997)  Hendrik & Vrielink (1997)4.0  den Brok & Verdoes (1997)4-5  Hendriks et al (1997)  Heber et al (1997), winter5.8 *  Koziel et al. (2005)6.0  This study in Missouri7.3  Hoff et al. (2005)7.4  Thelosen, et al (1994)7.9  Groot Uenk (1997)9.2  Ni et al (1998), summer16.6 *Airflow estimated by heat balance

32 Conclusions  The overall mean NH 3 concentration was 17 ppm in the control barn (n=184 d).  The overall mean NH 3 emission from the control barn was 62 g/d-AU (n=175 d).  Pig activity and NH 3 emission rate displayed similar diurnal patterns that were influenced by season.  Diurnal patterns of activity and ammonia emissions depended on daily mean temperatures.  55% of the annual barn airflow was delivered by 25% of the barn ventilation capacity.  The barn ammonia emissions were close to the Dutch standard of 6.8 g/day-pig.

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