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Biological Filtration Hugh S. Hammer, PhD GSCC David Cline, ACES Ron Malone, PhD LSU.

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Presentation on theme: "Biological Filtration Hugh S. Hammer, PhD GSCC David Cline, ACES Ron Malone, PhD LSU."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological Filtration Hugh S. Hammer, PhD GSCC David Cline, ACES Ron Malone, PhD LSU

2 Biological Filtration B1B1 B2B2 NH 3 Ammonia NO 2 Nitirite NO 3 Nitrate

3 Ammonia Sources  Decomposition of uneaten feed  Decomposition of fecal materials  Decomposition of dead materials  By product of protein (feed) metabolism

4 Ammonia Exists in 2 Forms  Toxic  More at High Temp  More at High pH  Less Toxic  More at Low Temp  More at Low pH NH 3 NH 4 +

5 NH3 NH4 + Equilibrium

6 Bacteria of Reaction #1  Nitrosomonas sp.  Nitrosospira sp.  Nitrosolobus sp.  Nitrosovibrio sp.  Nitrosococcus sp. NH 3 /NH 4 + NO 2 - Oxidation

7 Chemistry of Reaction #1  Requires Oxygen  Results in decreasing (more acidic) pH  Requires 7 grams of alkalinity (CO 3 -2 ) for each gram of ammonia (NH 3) converted to nitrate (NO 3 )


9 pH - What Should It Be

10 Alkalinity (Carbonate CO 3 - )  Stabilizes pH around pH 7-8  Resists changes in pH (acts as a buffer)  Required by nitrifying bacteria as a carbon source for survival

11 Biological Filtration Reaction #2 B1B1 B2B2 NH 3 Ammonia NO 2 Nitrite NO 3 Nitrate

12 Nitrite Conversion to Nitrate  Requires oxygen  Does not change pH  Requires alkalinity

13 Bacteria of Reaction #2  Nitrobacter sp.  Nitrospira sp.  Nitrospina sp.  Nitrococcus sp. NO 3 Oxidation NO 2 -

14 What About Nitrate?  Non toxic in most fish up to 300 ppm  Easily solved via water change  Also managed through addition of plants  Can be toxic for many invertebrates (i.e. shrimps) B1B1 B2B2 NH 3 Ammonia NO 2 Nitrite NO 3 Nitrate

15 Biofiltration

16 Optimal Nitrification Conditions  pH 7.5  High Dissolved Oxygen  Alkalinity CO 3 - (Carbon Source)  Surface Area (Media)  Food (ammonia and nitrite)  Low Light (Light inhibits growth)  Ammonia oxidizing bacteria grow fast  Nitrite oxidizing bacteria grow slowly

17 How Can You Tell If Your Filter Is Working ?

18 Filter Media

19 Bead Filters and Drop Filters  Probably the industry standard  Both mechanical and biological filtration  A type of fluidized bed filter  Space saving (consolidated approach)  Can be expensive  Drop filters are great for saving water, they concentrate solids  Drop filters don’t clog easily

20 Biofiltration


22 Propeller-washed Floating Bead Filters


24 Air Bleed Builds Charge Settled Backwash Waters returned to system Filter ModeDrop Filters : Low Water Loss Floating Bead Bioclarifiers

25 Internal Sludge Capture Drop Filters : Low Water Loss Floating Bead Bioclarifiers Released Air Washes Beads Backwash mode

26 Airlift Inlet Circulation Aeration Degassing Solids Capture Biofiltration

27 Fluidized Bed Filters  Can use any type of media (sand and beads are most common)  Uses a mixing media/water matrix  Great biological filtration  Bead filters are a type of fluidized filter that also accomplish solids capture.  Also called submerged filters when large void volume media is used.

28 Foam Block Media Active Media


30 Fluidized Sand Bed Filters  THESE ARE NOT RAPID SAND FILTERS  Advantages: –Tremendous surface area (the most) –Nitrite eating bacteria grow great –Best biological filters –Huge biological loads –Aquarium industry gold standard  Disadvantages: –Heavy, may require multiple pumps during power outages –Bacteria die quickly from O2 deprivation during power outages –MUST have all of the solids out of the water (solids can cause serious problems with channeling)




34 Trickle Filters, Packed Towers, Bio-wheels, RBCs  Media is not continually submerged but moist  Efficiency depends on water distribution  Inexpensive to build  Good biological filtration  Not good for solids removal (hard to clean)  Great for aerating water and stripping carbon dioxide  Will change the temperature of water (cools it off, sometimes good and sometimes not)  Some RBCs are very expensive but are great biofilters

35 Packed Tower  Adds Oxygen  Removes Carbon Dioxide  Biological Filtration  Easy to construct


37 Trickle Filter


39 Wet Dry Filters  Screen + Trickle Filter + Fluidized Bed Filter = Wet Dry Filter  Consolidated approach  Good for small loads (aquariums)  Advantages and Disadvantages of all the components

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