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A Hydrogen Economy. Agenda A Hydrogen Vision of the Future Hydrogen Systems Producing Hydrogen Storing and Transporting Hydrogen Hydrogen Fueled Transport.

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Presentation on theme: "A Hydrogen Economy. Agenda A Hydrogen Vision of the Future Hydrogen Systems Producing Hydrogen Storing and Transporting Hydrogen Hydrogen Fueled Transport."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Hydrogen Economy

2 Agenda A Hydrogen Vision of the Future Hydrogen Systems Producing Hydrogen Storing and Transporting Hydrogen Hydrogen Fueled Transport Problems with Hydrogen The Promise of Hydrogen Hydrogen Summary

3 A Vision of a Hydrogen Future "I believe that water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light, of an intensity of which coal is not capable. I believe then that when the deposits of coal are exhausted, we shall heat and warm ourselves with water. Water will be the coal of the future." Jules Vernes (1870) L´île mystérieuse

4 The Hydrogen H 2 Molecule

5 Hydrogen Economy Schematic

6 Hydrogen Economy in Hong Kong

7 Hydrogen Fueling Station

8 Hydrogen Systems

9 Hydrogen Energy Cycle

10 Hydrogen Production Cycle Crabtree et al., “The Hydrogen Economy,” Physics Today, Dec 2004

11 Operating the Hydrogen Economy Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

12 Hydrogen Economy Supply Chain

13 Hydrogen Pathways

14 Advantages of a Hydrogen Economy Waste product of burning H 2 is water Elimination of fossil fuel pollution Elimination of greenhouse gases Elimination of economic dependence Distributed production

15 Issues with Hydrogen Not widely available on planet earth Usually chemically combined in water or fossil fuels (must be separated) Fossil fuel sources contribute to pollution and greenhouse gases Electrolysis requires prodigious amounts of energy

16 Technological Questions Where does hydrogen come from? How is it transported? How is it distributed? How is it stored?

17 Producing Hydrogen

18 Current Hydrogen Production Current hydrogen production 48% natural gas 30% oil 18% coal 4% electrolysis Global Production 50 million tonnes / yr Growing 10% / yr US Production 11 million tonnes / yr

19 How is Hydrogen Produced? Reforming fossil fuels Heat hydrocarbons with steam Produce H 2 and CO Electrolysis of water Use electricity to split water into O 2 and H 2 High Temperature Electrolysis Experimental Biological processes Very common in nature Experimental in laboratories

20 Steam Reforming From any hydrocarbon Natural gas typically used Water (steam) and hydrocarbon mixed at high temperature (700–1100 °C) Steam (H 2 O) reacts with methane (CH 4 ) CH 4 + H 2 O → CO + 3 H kJ/mol The thermodynamic efficiency comparable to (or worse than) an internal combustion engine Difficult to motivate investment in technology

21 Carbon Monoxide Reforming Additional hydrogen can be recovered using carbon monoxide (CO) low-temp (130°C) water gas shift reaction CO + H 2 O → CO 2 + H kJ/mol Oxygen (O) atom stripped from steam Oxidizes the carbon (C) Liberates hydrogen bound to C and O 2

22 Hydrogen Steam Reforming

23 Hydrogen Steam Reforming Plants

24 Electrolysis of Water (H 2 O)

25 Electrolysis of Water

26 Renewable Energy for Electrolysis

27 Biomass Electrolysis Module

28 High Temperature Electrolysis Electrolysis at high temperatures Use less energy to split water

29 Biological H2 Creation Nature has very simple methods to split water Scientists are working to mimic these processes in the lab; then commercially Crabtree et al., “The Hydrogen Economy,” Physics Today, Dec 2004

30 Storing & Transporting Hydrogen

31 Hydrogen Storage Storage a major difficulty with hydrogen H 2 has low energy density per volume Requires large tanks to store H 2 can be compressed to reduce volume Requires heavy, strong tanks H 2 can be liquefied to reduce volume Boils at -423 °F (cryogenic) Requires heavily insulated, expensive tanks Both compression and liquefaction require a lot of energy

32 Ammonia Storage H 2 can be stored as ammonia (NH 3 ) Exceptionally high hydrogen densities Ammonia very common chemical Large infrastructure already exists Easily reformed to produce hydrogen No harmful waste BUT Ammonia production is energy intensive Ammonia is a toxic gas

33 Metal Hydride Storage Metal hydrides can carry hydrogen Boron, lithium, sodium Good energy density, but worse than gas Volumes much larger than gasoline Three times more volume Four times heavier Hydrides can react violently with water Leading contenders Sodium Borohydride Lithium Aluminum Hydride Ammonia Borane

34 Alkali Prod. Energy vs. Instrinsic Energy Energy needed to produce alkali metal hydrides relative to the energy content of the liberated hydrogen. Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

35 Transporting Hydrogen

36 Storing & Transporting Hydrogen Store and Transport as a Gas Bulky gas Compressing H 2 requires energy Compressed H 2 has far less energy than the same volume of gasoline Store and Transport as a Solid Sodium Borohydride Calcium Hydride Lithium Hydride Sodium Hydride

37 Hydrogen Fueled Transport

38 Hydrogen-Powered Autos

39

40 Hydrogen-Powered Trucks

41 Hydrogen-Powered Aircraft Hydrogen powered passenger aircraft with cryogenic tanks along spine of fuselage. Hydrogen fuel requires about 4 times the volume of standard jet fuel (kerosene).

42 Hydrogen-Powered Rockets

43 Implications of Hydrogen Transport Weight of fuel Weight of steel tank Weight of carbon fiber tank Volume of tank contents Volume of tank Typical 18 wheel truck (diesel) 1175 lb(small)NA22.5 feet feet 3 Typical sedan (gasoline) 108 lb(small)NA2.25 feet feet 3 Truck converted to ICE hydrogen 313 lb31,300 lb6,960 lb67.5 feet feet 3 Sedan converted to hydrogen fuel cell 17.4 lb1740 lb387 lb4 feet 3 9 feet 3

44 Problems with Hydrogen

45 Environmental Concerns 48% of hydrogen made from natural gas Creates CO 2 – a greenhouse gas Hydrogen H 2 inevitably leaks from containers Creates free radicals (H) in stratosphere due to ultraviolet radiation Could act as catalysts for ozone depletion

46 H2 Energy Densities Crabtree et al., “The Hydrogen Economy,” Physics Today, Dec 2004

47 Energy Densities for Various Fuels Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, Higher Heating Value (HHV) is a measure of energy

48 H 2 and Energy Density for Various Fuels Hydrogen density and HHV energy content of ammonia and selected synthetic liquid hydrocarbon fuels Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

49 Hydrogen vs. Methane UnitsHydrogenMethane Densitykg/m Gravimetric EnergyMJ/kg Volumetric EnergyMJ/m Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

50 Liquifaction Energy vs. Intrinsic Energy Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

51 Hydrogen Storage Densities Crabtree et al., “The Hydrogen Economy,” Physics Today, Dec 2004

52 Hydrogen Energy Losses Windmills generate electricity. Electricity converted to H 2 – 70% efficiency. H 2 compressed for pumping – 20% energy loss H 2 pumped long distance – 30% loss 65% loss to Europe from the Sahara). Loss at filling stations – assume 5% Loss in fuel cell – 50% (possibly only 40%) Combining losses → only 15-18% useful electricity, or vehicle motor power 9.3% in the case of the Sahara Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

53 Criticism of Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen economy idea does not work for multiple reasons. No practical source of cheap hydrogen No good way to store hydrogen No good way to distribute hydrogen Problems with physical & chemical properties of hydrogen Technology cannot change these facts. Compact / convenient future energy carrier needed Methane, ethane, methanol, ethanol, butane, octane, ammonia, etc. are better energy carriers. Difficult to understand the enthusiasm for hydrogen Hydrogen does not solve the energy problem and it is a bad choice for carrying energy. Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

54 Elemental Hydrogen Economy Elemental Hydrogen Economy based on the natural cycle of water. Elemental hydrogen is provided to the user Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

55 Synthetic Liquid Hydrocarbon Economy A Synthetic Liquid Hydrocarbon Economy may be based on the two natural cycles of water and carbon dioxide. Natural and synthetic liquid hydrocarbons are provided to the user. Bossel et al., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, Oct 28, 2004

56 The Promise of Hydrogen

57 UNIDO-ICHET Projection UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

58 The Iceland Example Iceland committed to be the first hydrogen economy 2050 goal Will use geothermal resources to create hydrogen Power autos, buses, and fishing fleet with hydrogen

59 Hydrogen Summary

60 Advantages of a Hydrogen Economy Waste product of burning H 2 is water Elimination of fossil fuel pollution Elimination of greenhouse gases Elimination of economic dependence Distributed production The stuff of stars

61 Disadvantages of Hydrogen Low energy densities Difficulty in handling, storage, transport Requires an entirely new infrastructure Creates CO 2 if made from fossil fuels Low net energy yields Much energy needed to create hydrogen Possible environmental problems Ozone depletion (not proven at this point)

62

63 Extra Slides

64 Energy Density of Hydrogen

65 Current Uses of Hydrogen

66 Thermochemical Production

67 Problems with Hydrogen

68 Prospects for the Future

69 The Hydrogen Vision


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